Therio- Feline Reproduction

wilsbach's version from 2015-11-14 21:13

Feline intro + physio

Question Answer
what type of cycle do cats have?Seasonal polyestrous, long day breeders
when does ovulation happen in cats?they are INDUCED ovulators, so Spontaneous ovulation may occur triggered by visual or phermonal cues
When does a cat reach puberty and what factors can influence this?Attained at 4-12 months of age, Influenced by bodyweight
what are the different stages of the cycle?proestrus, estrus, Interestrus (aka post-estrus), diestrus, anestrus
how long is proestrus?+/- 1 day (DOES NOT HAPPEN IN ALL QUEENS)
what is bh like in proestrus? what is the bh associated with?Continuously rubbing head and neck on objects, but usually does not allow mating. Associated with rising estrogen levels
when does the cat allow mating during her cycle?estrus
how long is estrus?Average of 6 days, but often duration depends on whether or not they’re bred (so there is a rangle of 2-19 days)
when is peak estrogen secretion?during estrus
what are some signs that the cat is in estrus?Crouching with forequarters pressed to the ground, Vocalization, Very affectionate, Treading with hind legs, Lordosis, Tail deviation
what is the dominant cell during estrus?Superficial cells
what causes LH release, and when in the cycle?(during estrus) Stimulation of vagina results in LH release--> ovulation. Magnitude of LH release depends on number of copulations in the queen
what do estrogen levels look like throughout the cat's cycle?
interestrus (aka postestrus) happens when in the cycle, and why? how long does it last? what part of the cycle follows it?interestrus Occurs in queens that have not been induced to ovulate, and it lasts for 8-10 days. It is then followed again by Estrus
what does a cat's estrOus cycle look like?
when does diestrus occur for cats?Occurs in queens that have been induced to ovulate
dominant hormone of diestrus?progesterone
If there is a pseudopregnant queen, how long does diestrus last and what stops it?lasts ± 40 days, until luteolysis occurs
how long does diestrus last if the queen is pregnant? what stops it?lasts ± 65 days, Luteolysis induced by initiation of partus
what is vaginal cytology like in diestrus of the queen?same as in the bitch (intermediate and parabasal cells)
After the end of diestrus in the queen, how long until estrus resumes? (is there a diff if it's a preg or pseudopreg queen?)Estrus resumes 7-10 days after luteolysis in both pregnant & pseudopregnant queens
how does suckling affect the queens cycle? (for how long?)Suckling may induce lactational anestrus for 2-3 wks
when are the two times anestus may occur in the queen?Seasonal during short daylength, Lactational anestrus may also occur

Breeding management + pregnancy

Question Answer
should you bring the tom to the queens territory, or the queen to the toms territory?Always take queen to tom’s territory (just think of how territorial Toms are!!)
how does copulation usually end?(copulation occurs quickly) Immediately after copulation, queen usually emits a loud “coital cry”, leaps away from male and will refuse to allow mating for a certain time period
how much can a queen mate in 36 hours?20-36 in 36 hours...woah
due to how much mating can occur so quickly while the queen is in estrus, what conception anomaly can occur?Superfecundation may occur (fertilization of two or more ova from the same cycle by sperm from separate acts of sexual intercourse)
Semen collection and AI don't usually occur...however, if they do, what are the two ways to collect semen? How can you do AI?Semen collection can be done via artificial vagina or Electroejaculator. AI can be performed transvaginally or laptoscopically
what drug can you administer to induce ovulation in a queen?hCG (works like LH)
how long is feline pregnancy?Duration ± 65 days (range 62-67 days)
what maintains the pregnancy?CL’s main source of progesterone for pregnancy maintenance... No factors for maternal recognition of pregnancy
what type of placenta does the cat have?Zonary placenta
4 ways to dx pregnancy?Palpation (from D15+), U/S, Radiography, Serum relaxin concentrations (from D25+)
how long before you can dx preg with palpation?from d15+
which hormone can you use to detect preg, and when can you start to detect it?Serum relaxin concentrations (from D25+

Pregnancy loss + Post-partum disorders

Question Answer
5 viral agents which can cause preg loss?feline herpes virus, FIV, FIP, FeLV, Feline panleukopenia virus
what bacteria can cause preg loss?usu just opportunistic bact infection
which protozoal agent can cause preg loss?toxoplasma gondii
which nutritional deficiency can lead to preg loss?taurine deficiency (Remember that cats are obligate carnivores!! taurine is in meat)
Extrauterine mummified fetuses-- usually due to what? how is the queen affected by them? how do you tx this?Usually due to trauma(??), (Often incidental finding), Cats not systemically ill. Treatment: OVH and removal of fetuses
there are rarely issues with feline should just provide what kinda environment?Ensure privacy, because Disturbing queen during parturition may cause her to stop giving birth for a number of hours
what is Neonatal isoerythrolysis?mom's blood type different from babies-- autoimmune attack on baby's RBCs (more in other cards on this)
what are the blood types of cats? Which is the most common?A, B, and AB. Most common is A
which cats are more likely to have type B blood?Purebreds like Abyssynian, Birman, British shorthair, Himalayan, Scottish Fold have higher percentage of Type B
*where (geographically) is there a higher incidence of of cats with type B blood?Much higher incidence on West Coast of US
under what circumstances does Neonatal isoerythrolysis become a problem? Explain what happens which leads to a dead kittenProblems occur when Type B queens mate with Type A toms. The mom is Type B, so she forms high levels of Anti-A antibodies. Then her kittens are born, some are type A and some are type B. The colostrum has Anti-A antibodies in it, so the Type A kittens' RBCs are attacked by the Abs in the colostrum --> Get intravascular hemolysis leading to anemia, nephropathy, DIC and death (but the B kittens are fine).
what are some of the clinical signs of neonatal isoerythrolysis in kittens? When do you usu see these clinical signs?Kittens born normal, but develop clinical signs within a few hours of suckling. There will be Anorexia, lethargy, emaciation. Hb-uria, Anemia, icterus, tail-tip necrosis (if they survive to a week of age). Often "fading kitten syndrome" is said as the cause
how do you treat a kitten suffering from neonatal isoerythrolysis?Remove kittens immediately! Foster or hand feed until a few days old after which they can be returned to their mother. (May need blood transfusions if severe)
how can you prevent neonatal isoerythrolysis?Blood typing purebred queens, Remove kittens for first few days and foster
retained placenta is uncommon, but usually presents like..see signs of metritis
is uterine prolapse common?no, it's uncommon
what are the clinical signs of metritis?Depression, anorexia, pyrexia, neglect of kittens, sanguino-purulent vaginal discharge.
how can you treat metritis in the queen?Spay if not a breeding female, abx, supportive care (fluids etc), Evacuate uterus – oxytocin/PGF

Manipulation of the feline estrous cycle/ infertility/ mammary gland conditions/ Ovarian remnant syndrome

Question Answer
why do we not like repeat pseudopregnancies in queens?predisposes to pyometra
3 ways to induce ovulation in a cat? (chemical or otherwise)?(1) hCG (2) GnRH (3) Mechanical stimulation using teaser tom or cotton bud
how does manipulating the photoperiod affect a cat's cycle?When queens are maintained under constant photoperiod, no seasonal influence on the cycle is present
the two agents which can be used to induce abortion in cats?(1) PGF2α (2) Aglipristone (not avail in the US)
Cystic endometrial hyperplasia-Pyometra complex--> what are two causes of this in cats?(1) Repeat pseudopregnancies (2) Exogenous progestins
when do you give Exogenous progestins to cats?NEVER!!
what does hCG do to a cat?induces ovulation
what does GnRH do to a cat?induces ovulation
if you stick a cotton tipped applicator in a cats hoohah, what happens?they ovulate
what are the clinical signs of CEH-Pyometra complex?Hx of estrus, Purulent vaginal discharge, Anorexia, lethargy, pyrexia, Vomiting, PU/PD, Leukocytosis
how can you treat Cystic endometrial hyperplasia- pyometra complex? (2 ways)OVH treatment of choice, If In valuable breeding queens, consider PGF2α
Mammary Hypertrophy is akamammary fibroepithelial hyperplasia, mammary fibroadenomatosis, fibroglandular mammary hypertrophy
under what conditions/in who does mammary hypertrophy happenCondition of young, pregnant or pseudopregnant queens under the influence of luteal progesterone
what drug can cause mammary hypertrophy? what other problems can it cause?exogenous progestins!!!! (which is why we never want to give them). Will cause this condition in young male cats too. May predispose to mammary neoplasia-- SO NEVER GIVE TO CATS
how do you treat mammary hyperplasia?Spontaneous complete regression occurs following luteolysis/ovariectomy/parturition
how common is neoplasia in cats?Third most common neoplasm of female cats
who is more likely to develop mammary neoplasia?Intact female cats 7x more likely to develop mammary carcinoma than neutered females (Reproductive hormones most likely play a big role in pathogensis). Also, Incidence increases dramatically >6 years of age
which type of mammary neoplasia is most common?Most commonly malignant adenocarcinomas
how common is metastasis of mammary neoplasia?Metastasis common (Lungs, lnn, liver)
what are clinical signs of mammary neoplasia?Presence of one or multiple mammary masses in older, intact female cats, they are often ulcerated
what are the treatments for mammary neoplasia?Radical surgical excision (unilateral/bilateral mastectomy)
what workups should you do before you do surgical excisions of mammary neoplasia?Full clinical, CBC & urinalysis. Thoracic rads to check for mets, Check regional lnn
prog of mammary neoplasia?guarded
is ORS more common in cats or dogs?cats
what is the cause of ORS?Failure to remove all of an ovary at OVH
what are the clinical signs of ORS?Normal signs of estrus... May be months/years after OVH
along with obvious signs of estrus, what are two other ways to dx ORS?(1) Presence of keratinized epithelial cells (superficial cells) on vaginal smear (2) Administration of hCG or GnRH to cause ovulation with measurement of serum progesterone 2-3 wks later (prog >3 ng/ml)
when should you do an exploratory laparotomy to determine if there is ORS?Exploratory laparotomy within 3-6 wks of inducing ovulation

The Tomcat

Question Answer
what is unique about the tomcat penis?It has Spines, which are testosterone dependent, so if they are castrated, they will disappear within 6wks
what are tomcat testes like/positioned?intrascrotal
which accessory sex glands does the tomcat have?prostate, Bulbourethral glands
how long must you wait before you can determine if the cat is a cryptorchid?Testes should be present in scrotum before birth (so should be apparent immediately)
why do we not like retained testicles?Higher incidence of testicular neoplasia in retained testis
who is more prone to retained testicles?Heritable
when might a cryptorchid still be fertile?if theyre unilateral
how can you dx cryptorchid?Careful palpation of the scrotum, Examination of the penis for the presence of spines, Serum testosterone concentration following hCG or GnRH stimulation test
if you want to measure serum testosterone concentrations to confirm cryptorchidism, how can you go about ensuring there would be proper levels to measure and confirm?do a hCG or GnRH stimulation test
what is going on if you see a male calico or tortoiseshell cat?(SUPER RARE) It is due to extra chromosomes present, so usually XXY or chimeras (there is a high incidence of sterility)

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