Therio - Feline Reproduction

drraythe's version from 2017-09-10 03:53

Feline intro + Physio

Question Answer
What type of cycle do cats have?Seasonal polyestrous, long day breeders
When does ovulation happen in cats?They are INDUCED ovulators, so Spontaneous ovulation may occur triggered by visual or hormonal cues
When does a cat reach puberty & what factors can influence this?Attained at 4-12 mos of age, Influenced by bodyweight
What are the different stages of the cycle?Proestrus
Interestrus (aka post-estrus)
How long is proestrus?+/- 1 day (DOES NOT HAPPEN IN ALL QUEENS)
What is BH like in proestrus? What is the BH associated w/?Continuously rubbing head & neck on objects, but usually does not allow mating. Associated w/ rising estrogen levels
When does the cat allow mating during her cycle?Estrus
How long is estrus?Average of 6 days, but often duration depends on whether or not they’re bred (so there is a range of 2-19 days)
When is peak estrogen secretion?During estrus
What are some signs that the cat is in estrus?Crouching w/ forequarters pressed to the ground
Very affectionate
Treading w/ hind legs
Tail deviation
What is the dominant cell during estrus?Superficial cells
What czs LH release, & when in the cycle?(During estrus) Stimulation of vagina results in LH release → ovulation. Magnitude of LH release depends on number of copulations in the queen
What do estrogen levels look like throughout the cat's cycle?
Interestrus (aka Postestrus) happens when in the cycle, & why? How long does it last? What part of the cycle follows it?Interestrus Occurs in queens that have not been induced to ovulate, & it lasts for 8-10 days. It is then followed again by Estrus
What does a cat's estrOus cycle look like?
When does diestrus occur for cats?Occurs in queens that have been induced to ovulate
Dominant hormone of diestrus?Progesterone
If there is a pseudopregnant queen, how long does diestrus last & what stops it?Lasts ± 40 days, until luteolysis occurs
How long does diestrus last if the queen is pregnant? What stops it?Lasts ± 65 days
Luteolysis induced by initiation of partus
What is vaginal cytology like in diestrus of the queen?Same as in the bitch (intermediate & parabasal cells)
After the end of diestrus in the queen, how long until estrus resumes? (Is there a diff if it's a preg or pseudopreg queen?)Estrus resumes 7-10 days after luteolysis in both pregnant & pseudopregnant queens
How does suckling affect the queens cycle? (For how long?)Suckling may induce lactational anestrus for 2-3 wks
When are the 2 times anestrus may occur in the queen?Seasonal during short day length, Lactational anestrus may also occur

Breeding management + Pregnancy

Question Answer
Should you bring the tom to the queen’s territory, or the queen to the toms territory?Always take queen to tom’s territory (just think of how territorial Toms are!!)
How does copulation usually end?(copulation occurs quickly) Immediately after copulation, queen usually emits a loud “coital cry”, leaps away from male & will refuse to allow mating for a certain time period
How much can a queen mate in 36 hours?20-36 in 36 hours...woah
Due to how much mating can occur so quickly while the queen is in estrus, what conception anomaly can occur?Superfecundation may occur (fertilization of 2 or more ova from the same cycle by sperm from separate acts of sexual intercourse)
Semen collection & AI don't usually occur...however, if they do, what are the 2 ways to collect semen? How can you do AI?Semen collection can be done via artificial vagina or Electroejaculator. AI can be performed transvaginally or laparoscopically
What drug can you administer to induce ovulation in a queen?hCG (works like LH)
How long is feline pregnancy?Duration ± 65 days (range 62-67 days)
what maintains the pregnancy?CL’s main source of progesterone for pregnancy maintenance... No factors for maternal recognition of pregnancy
What type of placenta does the cat have?Zonary placenta
4 ways to Dx pregnancy?Palpation (from D15+), U/S, Radiography, Serum relaxin concentrations (from D25+)
How long before you can Dx preg w/ palpation?From D15+
Which hormone can you use to detect preg, & when can you start to detect it?Serum relaxin concentrations (from D25+)

Pregnancy loss + Post-partum disorders

Question Answer
5 viral agents which can cz preg loss?Feline Herpes Virus
Feline Panleukopenia Virus
What bacteria can cz preg loss?Usu just opportunistic bact Infxn
Which protozoal agent can cz preg loss?Toxoplasma gondii
Which nutritional deficiency can lead to preg loss?Taurine deficiency (Remember that cats are obligate carnivores!! Taurine is in meat)
Extrauterine mummified fetuses-- usually due to what? How do they affect the queen? How do you Tx this?Usually due to trauma, (Often incidental finding), Cats not systemically ill
Tx: OVH & removal of fetuses
There are rarely issues w/ feline should just provide what kinda environment?Ensure privacy, bc Disturbing queen during parturition may cz her to stop giving birth for a number of hours
What is Neonatal isoerythrolysis?Mom’s blood type different from babies-- autoimmune attack on baby's RBCs (more in other cards on this)
What are the blood types of cats? Which is the most common?A, B, & AB. Most common is A
Which cats are more likely to have type B blood?Purebreds like:
British shorthair
Scottish Fold have higher % of Type B
*Where (geographically) is there a higher incidence of cats w/ type B blood?Much higher incidence on West Coast of US
Under what circumstances does Neonatal isoerythrolysis become a problem? Explain what happens which leads to a dead kittenProblems occur when Type B queens mate w/ Type A toms. The mom is Type B, so she forms high levels of Anti-A antibodies. Then her kittens are born, some are type A & some are type B. The colostrum has Anti-A antibodies in it, so the Type A kittens' RBCs are attacked by the Abs in the colostrum → Get intravascular hemolysis leading to anemia, nephropathy, DIC & death (but the B kittens are fine).
What are some of the CSs of neonatal isoerythrolysis in kittens? When do you usu see these CSs?Kittens born normal, but develop CSs w/in a few hours of suckling. There will be Anorexia, lethargy, emaciation. Hb-uria, Anemia, icterus, tail-tip necrosis (if they survive to a week of age). Often "fading kitten syndrome" is said as the cz
How do you treat a kitten suffering from neonatal isoerythrolysis?Remove kittens immediately! Foster or hand feed until a few days old after which they can be returned to their mother. (May need blood transfusions if severe)
How can you prevent neonatal isoerythrolysis?Blood typing purebred queens, Remove kittens for 1st few days & foster
Retained placenta is uncommon, but usually presents like...See signs of Metritis
Is uterine prolapse common?No, it's uncommon
What are the CSs of metritis?Depression
Neglect of kittens
Sanguino-purulent vaginal discharge
How can you treat metritis in the queen?Spay if not a breeding female
Supportive care (fluids etc)
Evacuate uterus – Oxytocin/PGF

Manipulation of the feline estrous cycle/ Infertility/ Mammary gland conditions/ Ovarian remnant syndrome

Question Answer
Why do we not like repeat pseudopregnancies in queens?Predisposes to pyometra
3 ways to induce ovulation in a cat? (Chemical or otherwise)?(1) hCG
(2) GnRH
(3) Mechanical stimulation using teaser tom or cotton bud
How does manipulating the photoperiod affect a cat's cycle?When queens are maintained under constant photoperiod, no seasonal influence on the cycle is present
The 2 agents that can be used to induce abortion in cats?(1) PGF2α
(2) Aglipristone (not avail in the US)
Cystic endometrial hyperplasia-Pyometra complex → what are 2 czs of this in cats?(1) Repeat pseudopregnancies
(2) Exogenous progestins
When do you give Exogenous progestins to cats?NEVER!!
What does hCG do to a cat?Induces ovulation
What does GnRH do to a cat?Induces ovulation
If you stick a cotton tipped applicator in a cats hoohah, what happens?They ovulate (induces ovulation)
What are the CSs of CEH-Pyometra complex?Hx of estrus
Purulent vaginal discharge
How can you treat Cystic endometrial hyperplasia- pyometra complex? (2 ways)OVH Tx of choice, If In valuable breeding queens, consider PGF2α
Mammary Hypertrophy is akaMammary fibroepithelial hyperplasia
Mammary fibroadenomatosis
Fibroglandular mammary hypertrophy
Under what conditions/in who does mammary hypertrophy happenCondition of young, pregnant or pseudopregnant queens under the influence of luteal progesterone
What drug can cz mammary hypertrophy? What other problems can it cz?Exogenous progestins! (Which is why we never want to give them). Will cz this condition in young male cats too. May predispose to mammary neoplasia-- SO NEVER GIVE TO CATS
How do you treat mammary hyperplasia?Spontaneous complete regression occurs following luteolysis/ovariectomy/parturition
How common is neoplasia in cats?3rd most common neoplasm of female cats
Who is more likely to develop mammary neoplasia?Intact female cats 7x more likely to develop mammary carcinoma than neutered females (Reproductive hormones most likely play a big role in pathogensis). Also, Incidence increases dramatically >6 yrs of age
Which type of mammary neoplasia is most common?Most commonly Malignant adenocarcinomas
How common is metastasis of mammary neoplasia?Metastasis common (Lungs, lnn, liver)
What are CSs of mammary neoplasia?Presence of 1 or multiple mammary masses in older, intact female cats, they are often ulcerated
What are the Txs for mammary neoplasia?Radical surgical excision (unilateral/bilateral mastectomy)
What workups should you do before you do surgical excisions of mammary neoplasia?Full clinical, CBC & urinalysis. Thoracic rads to check for mets, Check regional lnn
Prog of mammary neoplasia?Guarded
Is ORS more common in cats or dogs?Cats
What is the cz of ORS?Failure to remove all of an ovary at OVH
What are the CSs of ORS?Normal signs of estrus... May be mos/yrs after OVH
Along w/ obvious signs of estrus, what are 2 other ways to Dx ORS?(1) Presence of keratinized epithelial cells (superficial cells) on vaginal smear
(2) Administration of hCG or GnRH to cz ovulation w/ measurement of serum progesterone 2-3 wks later (prog >3 ng/ml)
When should you do an exploratory laparotomy to determine if there is ORS?Exploratory laparotomy w/in 3-6 wks of inducing ovulation

The Tomcat

Question Answer
What is unique about the tomcat penis?It has Spines, which are testosterone dependent, so if they are castrated, they will disappear w/in 6wks
What are tomcat testes like/positioned?Intrascrotal
Which accessory sex glands does the tomcat have?Prostate, Bulbourethral glands
How long must you wait before you can determine if the cat is a cryptorchid?Testes should be present in scrotum before birth (so should be apparent immediately)
Why do we not like retained testicles?Higher incidence of testicular neoplasia in retained testis
Who is more prone to retained testicles?Heritable
When might a cryptorchid still be fertile?If theyre unilateral
How can you Dx cryptorchid?Careful palpation of the scrotum
Examination of the penis for the presence of spines
Serum testosterone concentration following hCG or GnRH stimulation test
If you want to measure serum testosterone concentrations to confirm cryptorchidism, how can you go about ensuring there would be proper levels to measure & confirm?Do a hCG or GnRH stimulation test
What is going on if you see a male calico or tortoiseshell cat?(SUPER RARE) It is due to extra chromosomes present, so usually XXY or chimeras (there is a high incidence of sterility)

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