which nutritional deficiency can lead to preg loss?
taurine deficiency (Remember that cats are obligate carnivores!! taurine is in meat)
Extrauterine mummified fetuses-- usually due to what? how is the queen affected by them? how do you tx this?
Usually due to trauma(??), (Often incidental finding), Cats not systemically ill. Treatment: OVH and removal of fetuses
there are rarely issues with feline parturition...you should just provide what kinda environment?
Ensure privacy, because Disturbing queen during parturition may cause her to stop giving birth for a number of hours
what is Neonatal isoerythrolysis?
mom's blood type different from babies-- autoimmune attack on baby's RBCs (more in other cards on this)
what are the blood types of cats? Which is the most common?
A, B, and AB. Most common is A
which cats are more likely to have type B blood?
Purebreds like Abyssynian, Birman, British shorthair, Himalayan, Scottish Fold have higher percentage of Type B
*where (geographically) is there a higher incidence of of cats with type B blood?
Much higher incidence on West Coast of US
under what circumstances does Neonatal isoerythrolysis become a problem? Explain what happens which leads to a dead kitten
Problems occur when Type B queens mate with Type A toms. The mom is Type B, so she forms high levels of Anti-A antibodies. Then her kittens are born, some are type A and some are type B. The colostrum has Anti-A antibodies in it, so the Type A kittens' RBCs are attacked by the Abs in the colostrum --> Get intravascular hemolysis leading to anemia, nephropathy, DIC and death (but the B kittens are fine).
what are some of the clinical signs of neonatal isoerythrolysis in kittens? When do you usu see these clinical signs?
Kittens born normal, but develop clinical signs within a few hours of suckling. There will be Anorexia, lethargy, emaciation. Hb-uria, Anemia, icterus, tail-tip necrosis (if they survive to a week of age). Often "fading kitten syndrome" is said as the cause
how do you treat a kitten suffering from neonatal isoerythrolysis?
Remove kittens immediately! Foster or hand feed until a few days old after which they can be returned to their mother. (May need blood transfusions if severe)
how can you prevent neonatal isoerythrolysis?
Blood typing purebred queens, Remove kittens for first few days and foster
retained placenta is uncommon, but usually presents like..
see signs of metritis
is uterine prolapse common?
no, it's uncommon
what are the clinical signs of metritis?
Depression, anorexia, pyrexia, neglect of kittens, sanguino-purulent vaginal discharge.
how can you treat metritis in the queen?
Spay if not a breeding female, abx, supportive care (fluids etc), Evacuate uterus – oxytocin/PGF
under what conditions/in who does mammary hypertrophy happen
Condition of young, pregnant or pseudopregnant queens under the influence of luteal progesterone
what drug can cause mammary hypertrophy? what other problems can it cause?
exogenous progestins!!!! (which is why we never want to give them). Will cause this condition in young male cats too. May predispose to mammary neoplasia-- SO NEVER GIVE TO CATS
how do you treat mammary hyperplasia?
Spontaneous complete regression occurs following luteolysis/ovariectomy/parturition
how common is neoplasia in cats?
Third most common neoplasm of female cats
who is more likely to develop mammary neoplasia?
Intact female cats 7x more likely to develop mammary carcinoma than neutered females (Reproductive hormones most likely play a big role in pathogensis). Also, Incidence increases dramatically >6 years of age
which type of mammary neoplasia is most common?
Most commonly malignant adenocarcinomas
how common is metastasis of mammary neoplasia?
Metastasis common (Lungs, lnn, liver)
what are clinical signs of mammary neoplasia?
Presence of one or multiple mammary masses in older, intact female cats, they are often ulcerated
what workups should you do before you do surgical excisions of mammary neoplasia?
Full clinical, CBC & urinalysis. Thoracic rads to check for mets, Check regional lnn
prog of mammary neoplasia?
is ORS more common in cats or dogs?
what is the cause of ORS?
Failure to remove all of an ovary at OVH
what are the clinical signs of ORS?
Normal signs of estrus... May be months/years after OVH
along with obvious signs of estrus, what are two other ways to dx ORS?
(1) Presence of keratinized epithelial cells (superficial cells) on vaginal smear (2) Administration of hCG or GnRH to cause ovulation with measurement of serum progesterone 2-3 wks later (prog >3 ng/ml)
when should you do an exploratory laparotomy to determine if there is ORS?
Exploratory laparotomy within 3-6 wks of inducing ovulation