Therio- Equine Complications of Pregnancy (EED, Abortion, abnormal gestational conditions) 1

drraythe's version from 2016-04-29 14:35


Question Answer
how many days into preg where it is considered EED and not abortion?EED <D45 of pregnancy. Abortion >D45 of pregnancy
if <15 days, what is doing on with mom's cycleno change in cyclicity
if between 15 and 30 days, what is going on with moms cycleprolonged luteal phase
if >35 days (but less than 45 days to be considered EED) what was going on with mom's cycle?persistence of the endometrial cups and eCG secretion; no normal cycles/ovulation until they regress
what might be a maternal hormonal cause of of EED?progesterone deficiency?? (Regumate supplementation)
what are some maternal, uterine causes of EED? (3)(1) Insufficient uterine involution postpartum (2) Inflammation eg. Endometritis/post-breeding endometritis (3) Fibrosis (Sometime called endometriosis)
what is a maternal, age-relate cause of EED? (what age?)Oocyte quality / Chromosomal abnormalities ***>15yr is when these are big probs
how can endotoxemia possibly lead to EED?Remember that systemic inflammation of any kind, especially endotoxamia, will result in PGF2α release, which will cause luteolysis and terminate the pregnancy….
how is it possible that at different stages of the preg, endotoxemia can be a cause of EED or it can not? why?This is because systemic inflammation from endotoxemia---> release PGF2a--> lyse CL. but the later in the preg, the more things there are maintaining preg than just CL, so that's why this variation: (1) Between D14-D35, endotoxaemia causes 100% loss of pregnancy (2) Between D40-D80, endotoxaemia will cause 50% loss of pregnancy (3) >D80 of pregnancy, endotoxaemia will cause 0% loss (what is responsible for maintenance of pregnancy now?)
when (what days) will endotoxemia cause 100% loss of preg?D14-D35
when (what days) will endotoxemia cause 50% loss of preg?D40-D80
when (what days) will endotoxiemia cause 0% loss of preg?>80D preg

Abortion-- intro, viruses

Question Answer
ascending placentitis MOST LIKELY caused by? can also be caused by?Streptococcus zooepidemicus, also E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae
what are the three major infectious agents which cause equine abortion?EHV1,4 (Equine Rhinopneumonitis), EVA (Equine Viral Arteritis), Streptococcus zooepidemicus (ascending placentitis)
(read through) 9 major NON-infectious causes of abortion?****TWINS, umbilical cord torsion/strangulation, uterine body pregnancy, villous atrophy, Fescue toxicosis, congenital abnormalities, maternal stress / diseases, malnutrition, Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome (MRLS)
1st, 2nd, and 3rd most common causes of abortion(#1)- Twin pregnancy (#2)- EHV-1 and EVA (#3)- Bacterial (placentitis)..... not remember, 50% of all abortions remain undiagnosed!
what are the 3 kinds of Equine Herpes Virus, and how do they differ?(1) EHV1: (Rhinopneumonitis) which has 3 different disease syndromes (a) Respiratory illness in young horses (b) Abortion in pregnant mares (c) Myelo-encephalopathy in adult horses (uncommon) (2) EHV4: (respiratory illness) (3) EHV3: coital exanthema (Transmitted venereally/iatrogenically)
which equine herpes viruses cause abortion?EHV1 (Rhinopneumonitis) and EHV4 (resp illness)
which equine herpes virus DOESNT cause abortion? what DOES it do?EHV3: coital exanthema doesnt cause abortion but does cause this venereal dz
EHV 1 is transmitted how? (which one is this?)Rhinopneumonitis!!!! aerosolized secretions from infected coughing horses. direct and indirect (fomite) contact with nasal secretions. ALSO, contact with aborted fetuses, fetal fluids and placentae= HIGH VIRAL LOAD
which tissues/things will have a high viral load from EHV1?aborted fetuses, fetal fluids and placentae
why is EHV 1 a pain to control?IT IS HERPES! so, Establish latent infection in the majority of horses, where there will be no clinical signs and if stressed may get the reactivation of the virus with virus shedding (aerosol, nasal secretions on fomites, abortus)
what is a common situation to cause abortion storms with EHV1?Yearlings weaned… STRESSED!!! --> Reactivation of EHV: May/may not show resp disease --> Abortion storms in pregnant mares No other clinical signs Still birth/weak foals
abortion storms caused by what virus?EHV1, EVA
can you do serology with EHV1?Paired serology (indicative – not definitive)
how can you dx EHV1 with the placenta?minimal lesions – some edema – virus isolation
how can you dx EHV1 with the aborted fetus?*****Multifocal hepatic necrosis** Fresh fetus within membranes; little autolysis, Hydrothorax & hydroperitoneum, Some icterus, Virus identification from lung/liver/thymus (isolation – fluorescence antibody test)
where do you wanna get a sample of in the aborted fetus for virus isolation of EHV1?lung/liver/thymus (fluorescence antibody test)
what is the very unique sign that tells you the abortion was likely caused by EHV1?Multifocal hepatic necrosis in liver of aborted fetus!!!
excessive pleural fluid and prominent bands of interlobular edema in the lungs.... which dz does this look like? This is EHV1
what is DISH?this is outbreak control!!! it stands for Disinfect; Isolate; Submit Samples & Hygiene
to control outbreak of EHV1, what do you do with the ABORTING mares?isolate!! Quarantine entire farm and apply DISH* (Disinfect; Isolate; Submit Samples & Hygiene)
to control outbreak of EHV1, what do you do with the EXPOSED mares?Keep together until they foal, Isolate from other mares
to control outbreak of EHV1, how do you handle the enviro contamination?Disinfect, Keep brood mares away from contaminated area
is there a vx for EHV1?YES!
what does the vx for EHV 1 do? WHEN do you give it? how often?Immunity is of short duration and does not deliver 100% protection. Provides protection on farm level – not individual level - all animals need to be vaccinated (2x/year). pregnant mares at 5, 7 and 9 months of gestation
how can you use herd management to help prevent a EHV1 breakout?Divide pregnant mares in small separated groups, Do not introduce new mares in the pregnant groups, Keep the young stock and transient horses away from the broodmares
Equine viral arteritis (EVA)- endemic to where, how common, and how severe?Worldwide distribution (endemic in Europe). luckily, outbreaks are infrequent, but hard to detect bc Majority of infections subclinical or inapparent
how is EVA (equine viral arteritis) transmitted?****Venereally from carrier stallions, Via chilled/frozen semen (AI) By aerosols from acutely infected horses, Indirect transmission by fomites, feces, urine, vaginal secretions etc
how environmentally labile EVA (equine viral arterititis?)The virus is heat sensitive but is able to persist at freezing temperatures
if you encounter EVA in the US, what you need to do?REPORTABLE!!
explain the cycle that allows persistance of EVA?persistently infected stallion is bred to a mare--> now acutely infected mare causes aerosol transmission--> aerosol transmission reaches Naive horses leading to resp dz, abortion, and possible persistant infection of stallions (Which then starts it again with him being bred to a mare)
how common is it to see signs of EVA?The majority of cases are subclinical or inapparent
what are the clinical signs of EVA (equine viral arteritis)?Fever, depression, anorexia, leukopenia, Rhinitis, conjunctivitis, urticaria, Edema of limbs, ventrum, periorbital region, scrotum, Abortion—associated with ‘abortion storms'
what are the unique signs to tell EVA apart?
which virus causes urticaria?EVA
which virus causes edema of ventral structures and limbs?EVA
who is the carrier in EVA cycle? and why? how long are the carriers carriers?Only stallions develop a carrier status! Males ideal bc.. Testosterone dependent, Survived in ampulla. shed through semen in chronic carriers, but not through the respiratory tract.
since EVA is stallion specific (why?) what can you do to elim the virus from them?Since maintainance/carrier status is dependent on testosterone, Suppressing testosterone for ≥ 6 weeks will eliminate virus (GnRH??)
Which stallions are protected from carrier status of EVA?Vaccinated stallions or previously exposed (non-carrier) stallions will NOT become carriers when exposed to the virus. PROTECTED
which virus is not spread through the resp tract in carriers?EVA
how does EVA lead to abortion of the fetus?Vasculitis in the uterus, compromise of uterine circulation, placental exchange is compromised, suffocates in utero, fetus stressed, abortion
what are the C/S you see with EVA in the ABORTED FETUS?No typical symptoms! vasculitis!! and AUTOLYSIS CAN BE SEEN!!. Will also see Pulmonary oedema (rib impressions on surface of lungs), and Edema in the liver (light colored shiny surface)
what virus is this? pulmonary and liver edema of aborted fetus= EVA
can you use virus isolation to dx EVA? (things to know?)include whole blood, nasopharyngeal swabs, conjunctival swabs, fetal or placental tissues/fluids. How to handle???: EVA is fragile at room temperatures, but stable when frozen. Samples should be frozen and shipped with freezer packs. (freezing blood to ship it is a good idea!)
can you do serology to dx eva?yes! Paired (acute and convalescent) samples at interval of 3-4 weeks
is there vx for EVA?yes!
who is vx against EVA, and how frequently?At-risk stallions re-vaccinated annually.
what is the downside to vx for EVA? *How do we try to minimize this problem?Currently it is not possible to differentiate vaccinated from natural infection via serology which has implications regarding breeding shed access and export. Stallions are screened serologically before primary vaccination. CERTIFICATION OF NON CARRIER STATE
how do you o outbreak prevention for EVA?same as for EHV1

Abortion- placentitis

Question Answer
**what is the reason placentitis happens?Is always of infectious origin
3 routes of infection to cause placentitis?(1) **Ascending through vagina (Strep zoo; E.coli) (2) Hematogenous Salmonella abortus equi and Leptospira (3) Activation of a nidus of bacteria present in the uterus – rare – Nocardioform placentitis?
which two infectious agents are most likely to cause placentitis via an ascending infection?Strep zoo; E.coli
which two infectious agents are most likely to cause placentitis via a hematogenous spread?Salmonella abortus equi and Leptospira
Bacterial placentitis is mostly caused by... (2 main ones, 3 less common ones)(1) Streptococcus equi subsp. Zooepidemicus (2) E. coli (3) Klebsiella pneumoniae (4) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5) Leptospira
which fungi and yeast can cause placentitis? (3)Aspergillus fumigatus, other mucor species and rarely yeasts such as candida
what does a normal cervical star look like on a placenta?
two major Predisposing factors for ascending placentitis?(1) ***POOR PERINEAL CONFORMATION (2) Compromised “barriers” (vulva, Vestibulovaginal junction, cervix). Problems with these two things leads to air, urine & fecal contamination and an ascending infection
what does placentitis look like?
describe the Pathogenesis of ascending placentitis (And how it leads to premature delivery)Ascending bacterial organisms invade the chorioallantois --> cause↑ expression pro-inflammatory cytokines in placenta --> results in PGE & PGF2α release into the allantoic fluid --> Causes an inflammatory cascade + premature delivery
If it is a ascending infection of the placenta, how do you expect the inflammatory lesions to be located?ascending up placenta starting at the cervical star
what is the typical appearance of placentitis caused by fungi?focal necrotic placentitis is typical of fungal infxn
****BEST WAY to get EARLY DX of PLACENTITIS?“Bagging up”, which is premature development of the mammary gland, milk production and milk let-down ***NB!!!!!
Early diagnosis of placentitis includes seeing what 3 things?(1) No illness, fever or discomfort (2) “Bagging up”, premature development of the mammary gland, milk production and milk let-down ***NB!!!!! (3) Vulvar discharge
what is the most common route of infection of the placenta leading to placentitis?99% of placentitis cases are ascending
how do you measure thickness of inflamed placenta, and WHY?Use ultrasonography to measure the thickness of the placenta. Thick placenta= inflamed placenta= placentitis. “CTUP = Combined Thickness of Uterus and Placenta.
*what is CTUP?Combined Thickness of Uterus and Placenta
what does placentitis around the cervix look like?thickening, edema, detachment from the endometrium
what does measuring CTUP look like on U/S?x to x is thickness
what is the goal of tx of placentitis?Contain the infection and inflammation as much as possible to buy time and allow the fetus to reach maturity and readiness for birth.
what kinda antimicrobials would you wanna do to tx placentitis?broad spectrum: TMPS po, bid – not always possible to do sensitivity testing after culture of cervical/vaginal swab
what are the three main types of drugs you might want to use in combination to tx placentitis?(1) broad spectrum abx (TMPS) (2) NSAIDs (flunixine) (3) Progestagens
which NSAID would you want to give to help tx placentitis?Flunixine sid
why do you want to give progestagents to help tx placentitis?maintains pregnancy (PO, SID)
(why might you want to use corticoisteroids in part of tx of placentitis?)(was greyed out so this card is just for reading over-- stimulate lung maturation of fetus)
if mom has placentitis, what should you be expecting the foal to be like?Be prepared to have a compromised foal that will likely have septicemia
prog for fetus of placentitis?very guarded