Therio - Equine Complications 1

drraythe's version from 2017-09-10 04:01


Question Answer
How many days into preg where it is considered EED & not abortion?EED <D45 of pregnancy<br>Abortion >D45 of pregnancy
If <15 days, what is doing on w/ mom's cycleNo change in cyclicity
If btwn 15 & 30 days, what is going on w/ moms cycleProlonged luteal phase
If >35 days (but less than 45 days to be considered EED) what was going on w/ mom's cycle?Persistence of the endometrial cups & eCG secretion; no normal cycles/ovulation until they regress
What might be a maternal hormonal cz of EED?Progesterone deficiency?? (Regumate supplementation)
What are some maternal, uterine czs of EED? (3)(1) Insufficient uterine involution postpartum
(2) Inflammation eg. Endometritis/post-breeding Endometritis
(3) Fibrosis (Sometime called endometriosis)
What is a maternal, age-relate cz of EED?Oocyte quality / Chromosomal abnormalities ***>15yr is when these are big probs
How can endotoxemia possibly lead to EED?Remember that systemic inflammation of any kind, especially endotoxemia, will result in PGF2α release, which will cz luteolysis & terminate the pregnancy….
How is it possible that at different stages of the preg, endotoxemia can be a cz of EED or it cannot? Why?This is bc systemic inflammation from endotoxemia- → release PGF2α → lyse CL. but the later in the preg, the more things there are maintaining preg than just CL, so that's why this variation:
(1) Btwn D14-D35, endotoxemia czs 100% loss of pregnancy
(2) Btwn D40-D80, endotoxemia will cz 50% loss of pregnancy
(3) >D80 of pregnancy, endotoxemia will cz 0% loss (what is responsible for maintenance of pregnancy now?)
When (what days) will endotoxemia cz 100% loss of preg?D14-D35
When (what days) will endotoxemia cz 50% loss of preg?D40-D80
When (what days) will endotoxemia cz 0% loss of preg?>80D preg

Abortion - Intro, Viruses

Question Answer
Ascending Placentitis MOST LIKELY czd by? Can also be czd by?Streptococcus zooepidemicus, also E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae
What are the 3 major infectious agents that cz equine abortion?EHV1 & 4 (Equine Rhinopneumonitis)
EVA (Equine Viral Arteritis)
Streptococcus zooepidemicus (ascending Placentitis)
(Read through) 9 major NON-infectious czs of abortion?****TWINS
Umbilical cord torsion/strangulation
Uterine body pregnancy
Villous atrophy
Fescue toxicosis
Congenital abnormalities
Maternal stress / Dzs
Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome (MRLS)
1st, 2nd, & 3rd most common czs of abortion(1) Twin pregnancy
(2) EHV-1 & EVA
(3) Bacterial (Placentitis)
50% of all abortions remain undiagnosed!
What are the 3 kinds of Equine Herpes Virus, & how do they differ?(1) EHV1: (Rhinopneumonitis) which has 3 different Dz syndromes (a) Respiratory illness in young horses (b) Abortion in pregnant mares (c) Myelo-encephalopathy in adult horses (uncommon)
(2) EHV4: (Respiratory illness)
(3) EHV3: Coital exanthema (Xmitted venereally/iatrogenically)
Which equine Herpes viruses cz abortion?EHV1 (Rhinopneumonitis) & EHV4 (Resp illness)
Which equine Herpes virus DOESNT cz abortion? What DOES it do?EHV3: Coital Exanthema doesnt cz abortion but does cz this venereal dz
EHV 1 is Xmitted how? (Which 1 is this?)Rhinopneumonitis!!!! Aerosolized secretions from infected coughing horses. Direct & indirect (fomite) contact w/ nasal secretions. ALSO, contact w/ aborted fetuses, fetal fluids & placentae = HIGH VIRAL LOAD
Which tissues/things will have a high viral load from EHV1?Aborted fetuses, fetal fluids & placentae
Why is EHV 1 a pain to control?IT IS HERPES! So, Establish latent Infxn in the majority of horses, where there will be no CSs & if stressed may get the reactivation of the virus w/ virus shedding (aerosol, nasal secretions on fomites, abortus)
What is a common situation to cz abortion storms w/ EHV1?Yearlings weaned… STRESSED! → Reactivation of EHV: May/may not show resp Dz → Abortion storms in pregnant mares No other CSs Still birth/weak foals
Abortion storms czd by what virus?EHV1, EVA
Can you do serology w/ EHV1?Paired serology (indicative – not definitive)
How can you Dx EHV1 w/ the placenta?Minimal lesions – some edema – virus isolation
How can you Dx EHV1 w/ the aborted fetus?*****Multifocal hepatic necrosis** Fresh fetus w/in membranes
Little autolysis
Hydrothorax & hydroperitoneum
Some icterus
Virus identification from lung/liver/thymus (isolation – fluorescence antibody test)
Where do you wanna get a sample of in the aborted fetus for virus isolation of EHV1?Lung/liver/thymus (fluorescence antibody test)
What is the very unique sign that tells you the abortion was likely czd by EHV1?Multifocal hepatic necrosis in liver of aborted fetus!!!
Excessive pleural fluid & prominent bands of interlobular edema in the lungs... which dz does this look like? This is EHV1
What is DISH?This is outbreak control!!! It stands for Disinfect; Isolate; Submit Samples & Hygiene
To control outbreak of EHV1, what do you do w/ the ABORTING mares?Isolate!! Quarantine entire farm & apply DISH* (Disinfect; Isolate; Submit Samples & Hygiene)
To control outbreak of EHV1, what do you do w/ the EXPOSED mares?Keep together until they foal, Isolate from other mares
To control outbreak of EHV1, how do you handle the enviro contamination?Disinfect, Keep brood mares away from contaminated area
Is there a Vx for EHV1?YES!
What does the Vx for EHV 1 do? When do you give it? How often?Immunity is of short duration & does not deliver 100% protection. Provides protection on farm level – not individual level - all animals need to be vaccinated (2x/yr). pregnant mares at 5, 7 & 9 mos of gestation
How can you use herd management to help prevent a EHV1 breakout?Divide pregnant mares in small separated groups
Do not introduce new mares in the pregnant groups
Keep the young stock & transient horses away from the broodmares
Equine viral arteritis (EVA) - endemic to where, how common, & how severe?Worldwide distribution (endemic in Europe). Luckily, outbreaks are infrequent, but hard to detect bc Majority of Infxns subclinical or unapparent
How is EVA (equine viral arteritis) Xmitted?~****Venereally from carrier stallions
Via chilled/frozen semen (AI
By aerosols from acutely infected horses
Indirect Xmission by fomites, feces, urine, vaginal secretions etc
How environmentally labile EVA (equine viral arteritis?)The virus is heat sensitive but is able to persist at freezing temperatures
If you encounter EVA in the US, what you need to do?REPORTABLE!!
Explain the cycle that allows persistence of EVA?Persistently infected stallion is bred to a mare → now acutely infected mare czs aerosol Xmission → aerosol Xmission reaches Naive horses leading to resp dz, abortion, & possible persistent Infxn of stallions (Which then starts it again w/ him being bred to a mare)
How common is it to see signs of EVA?The majority of cases are subclinical or unapparent
What are the CSs of EVA (equine viral arteritis)?Fever
Edema of limbs, ventrum, periorbital region, scrotum
Abortion - associated w/ ‘abortion storms'
What are the unique signs to tell EVA apart?
Which virus czs urticaria?EVA
Which virus czs edema of ventral structures & limbs?EVA
Who is the carrier in EVA cycle? & why? How long are the carriers?Only stallions develop a carrier status! Males ideal bc.. Testosterone dependent, Survived in ampulla. shed through semen in chronic carriers, but not through the respiratory tract.
Since EVA is stallion specific (why?) what can you do to elim the virus from them?Since maintenance/carrier status is dependent on testosterone, Suppressing testosterone for ≥ 6 weeks will eliminate virus (GnRH??)
Which stallions are protected from carrier status of EVA?Vaccinated stallions or previously exposed (non-carrier) stallions will NOT become carriers when exposed to the virus. PROTECTED
Which virus is not spread through the resp tract?EVA
How does EVA lead to abortion of the fetus?Vasculitis in the uterus, compromise of uterine circulation, placental exchange is compromised, suffocates in utero, fetus stressed, abortion
What are the CS you see w/ EVA in the ABORTED FETUS?No typical symptoms! vasculitis! & AUTOLYSIS CAN BE SEEN!!. Will also see Pulmonary oedema (rib impressions on surface of lungs), & Edema in the liver (light colored shiny surface)
What virus is this? pulmonary & liver edema of aborted fetus = EVA
Can you use virus isolation to Dx EVA? (Things to know?)Incld whole blood, nasopharyngeal swabs, & conjunctival swabs, fetal or placental tissues/fluids. How to handle? EVA is fragile at room temperatures, but stable when frozen. Samples should be frozen & shipped w/ freezer packs.
Can you do serology to Dx eva?Yes! Paired (acute & convalescent) samples at interval of 3-4 weeks
Is there Vx for EVA?Yes!
Who is Vx against EVA, & how frequently?At-risk stallions re-vaccinated annually.
What is the downside to Vx for EVA? *How do we try to minimize this problem?Currently it is not possible to differentiate vaccinated from natural Infxn via serology that has implications regarding breeding shed access & export. Stallions are screened serologically before 1° Vx. CERTIFICATION OF NON CARRIER STATE
How do you o outbreak prevention for EVA?Same as for EHV1

Abortion - Placentitis

Question Answer
**What is the reason Placentitis happens?Is always of infectious origin
3 routes of Infxn to cz Placentitis?(1) **Ascending through vagina (Strep zoo; E.coli)
(2) Hematogenous Salmonella abortus equi & Leptospira
(3) Activation of a nidus of bacteria present in the uterus – rare – Nocardioform Placentitis?
Which 2 infectious agents are most likely to cz Placentitis via an ascending Infxn?Strep zoo
Which 2 infectious agents are most likely to cz Placentitis via a hematogenous spread?Salmonella abortus equi & Leptospira
Bacterial Placentitis is mostly czd by... (2 main ones, 3 less common ones)(1) Streptococcus equi subsp. Zooepidemicus
(2) E. coli

(3) Klebsiella pneumoniae
(4) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
(5) Leptospira
Which fungi & yeast can cz Placentitis? (3)Aspergillus fumigatus, other mucor species & rarely yeasts such as candida
What does a normal cervical star look like on a placenta?
Two major Predisposing factors for ascending Placentitis?(1) ***POOR PERINEAL CONFORMATION
(2) Compromised “barriers” (vulva, Vestibulovaginal Jxn, cervix). Problems w/ these 2 things leads to air, urine & fecal contamination & an ascending Infxn
What does Placentitis look like?
Describe the Pathogenesis of ascending Placentitis (& how it leads to premature delivery)Ascending bacterial organisms invade the chorioallantois → cz↑ expression pro-inflammatory cytokines in placenta → results in PGE & PGF2α release into the allantoic fluid → Czs an inflammatory cascade + premature delivery
If it is an ascending Infxn of the placenta, how do you expect the inflammatory lesions to be located?ascending the placenta starting at the cervical star
What is the typical appearance of Placentitis czd by fungi?Focal necrotic Placentitis is typical of fungal infxn
****BEST WAY to get EARLY Dx of PLACENTITIS?“Bagging up”, which is premature development of the mammary gland, milk production & milk letdown ***NB!
Early Dx of Placentitis inclds seeing what 3 things?(1) No illness, fever or discomfort
(2) “Bagging up”, premature development of the mammary gland, milk production & milk let-down ***NB!!!!!
(3) Vulvar discharge
What is the most common route of Infxn of the placenta leading to Placentitis?99% of Placentitis cases are ascending
How do you measure thickness of inflamed placenta, & WHY?Use ultrasonography to measure the thickness of the placenta. Thick placenta = inflamed placenta = Placentitis. “CTUP = Combined Thickness of Uterus & Placenta.
*What is CTUP?Combined Thickness of Uterus & Placenta
What does Placentitis around the cervix look like?Thickening, edema, detachment from the endometrium
What does measuring CTUP look like on U/S?x to x is thickness
What is the goal of Tx of Placentitis?Contain the Infxn & inflammation as much as possible to buy time & allow the fetus to reach maturity & readiness for birth.
What kinda antimicrobials would you wanna do to Tx Placentitis?Broad spectrum: TMPS po, bid – not always possible to do sensitivity testing after culture of cervical/vaginal swab
What are the 3 main types of drugs you might want to use in combination to Tx Placentitis?(1) Broad spectrum ABx (TMPS)
(2) NSAIDs (Flunixin)
(3) Progestagens
Which NSAID would you want to give to help Tx Placentitis?Flunixin SID
Why do you want to give progestagents to help Tx Placentitis?Maintains pregnancy (PO, SID)
(Why might you want to use corticosteroids in part of Tx of Placentitis?)(Was greyed out so this card is just for reading over) Stimulate lung maturation of fetus
If mom has Placentitis, what should you be expecting the foal to be like?Be prepared to have a compromised foal that will likely have septicemia
Prog for fetus of Placentitis?Very guarded