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Therio - Canine 1

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drraythe's version from 2017-09-10 03:54

BSE conditions 1

Question Answer
3 indications for a BSE in a dog?Certification of a breeding male, Semen collection for AI/Freezing, Hx of infertility
Impotentia coendi means?Unable to copulate
Impotentia generandi means?Inability to generate spermatozoa
examples of Impotentia coendi?Poor libido
Inability to mount
Failure of penile extrusion
Failure of intromission
Examples of Impotentia generandi?Conditions of the testes
Conditions of the epididymis
Conditions of the accessory sex glands
What condition might you want to check for which would affect preputial conformation?Hypospadia
What penile conditions might you look for on a BSE?Paraphimosis/Phimosis
Balanoposthitis
Urethral prolapse
Fracture of os penis
TVT
What is Hypospadia?Abnormal termination of penile urethra along the ventral surface of the penis, Due to incomplete fusion of the median raphe of the penis, prepuce &/or scrotum
Hypospadia often occurs concurrently w/...?Cryptorchidism
Shortening of the penis
Deficient development of ventral prepuce or ventral deviation of the penis
4 classifications of hypospadia?Glandular
Penile
Scrotal
Perineal
What are the most common presenting complaints for a dog w/ hypospadia?Presenting complaint depends on Location, but Usually urinary incontinence w/ associated dermatitis
How do you Tx penile hypospadia?Amputation of penis & prepuce to level of urethral opening
How do you Tx Scrotal & Perineal hypospadia?Complete amputation of penis & urethrostomy
What procedure is recc you do if you are TX the hypospadia?Castrate- inherited condition
What is Paraphimosis?Inability to retract the erect or non-erect protruded penis back into the preputial sheath
What are some czs of Paraphimosis?Sexual arousal
Neurological Dz
Fracture of os penis
Balanoposthitis
Constriction of preputial opening (eg. Hair ring; swelling of penis eg. Trauma, neoplasia)
Paraphimosis results in what problems?Ischemia & drying, progressively compromised
TX of Paraphimosis?Lubricate & attempt to replace, Retain w/ purse-string? Castration usually *not effective, May need to surgically enlarge preputial opening, May need to do penile amputation w/ urethrostomy
What is Phimosis?Inability to protrude penis from prepuce
Czs of phimosis?Maybe congenital eg. intersex dogs; acquired due to a stricture of the preputial orifice
TX of phimosis?Surgical enlargement of preputial opening
What is Balanoposthitis?Balano = Inflammation of the glans penis
Posthitis = Inflammation of the preputial mucosa
What usually czs Balanoposthitis?Usually opportunistic pathogens (Eg. E. coli) Or viruses (Eg. Herpes virus (CHV))
CSs of Balanoposthitis?Purulent to sanguinopurulent preputial discharge, Mucosa hyperemic, Vesicles w/ CHV
How do you Tx Balanoposthitis?Systemic &/or topical antimicrobials.... Flushing of prepuce w/ warm water/saline?
Prolapse of distal urethra can be czd by... (2)(1) Idiopathic
(2) 2° to sexual excitement or urethral Infxn
CSs of prolapse of distal urethra?Bleeding from preputial opening, Stranguria, Red “pea” at tip of penis
TX of prolapse of distal urethra?Surgical replacement of prolapsed tissue w/ urethropexy (use glass rod to push urethra back in, fix w/ suture material)
CSs of fracture of os penis?Ventral deviation of penis, Dysuria & hematuria, Pain, Crepitus
TX of fracture of os penis?Depends on type of fracture...Closed or open reduction
CS of TVT?CSs vary depending on site of tumor... Usually present w/ serosanguineous preputial discharge. May get mets to nasal & oral mucosa
Where do TVTs like to metastasize to?May get mets to nasal & oral mucosa
How does TVT look cytologically?
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Conditions 2 (mostly balls & scrotum)

Question Answer
4 things youre looking for w/ the scrotum on a BSE?Dermatitis
Herniation
Hydrocele
Neoplasia
4 things youre looking for w/ the testes on a BSE?Cryptorchidism
Orchitis
Neoplasia
Torsion of the spermatic cord
Infectious Dzs that might cz scrotal dermatitis?B. canis; Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Autoimmune disorders which might cz scrotal dermatitis?Discoid lupus; Pemphigus erythematosus
3 pathogenesis reasons there might be scrotal dermatitis?Infectious Dzs
Autoimmune disorders
Contact dermatitis
What is the big concern w/ scrotal dermatitis?Inflammation of scrotum → inc intrascrotal T° → dec fertility
CSs of scrotal herniation?Fluctuant to firm swelling in the scrotum
May or may not be reducible back through inguinal canal
May get entrapment & strangulation of herniated tissues → vomiting, anorexia, scrotal pain
What is a Hydrocele?Collection of fluid in vaginal tunic. Composition varies w/ underlying cz (Eg. Hematocele)
Czs of a hydrocele?Idiopathic
Inguinal hernia
Infxn
Trauma
Testicular torsion
3 most common SCROTAL neoplasias?Squamous cell carcinoma
Melanoma
Mast Cell Tumor
Why does Cryptorchidism happen?Sex-linked autosomal recessive trait
Gene can be carried by male or female
What is cryptorchidism? (Time frame)Developmental defect in which descent of the testes does not occur w/in 6 mos
Why do we care that it takes longer than 6mo for the balls to drop?Closure of inguinal ring at 6mo
In most dogs, testes descended by _(time)_ after birth10 days
Are cryptorchids usually uni or bilateral?Usu UNI
What is the mechanism by which the testes descend?Gubernaculum pulls balls from kidneys down to scrotum
Explain how the vaginal tunic comes about?Testes has layer of peritoneum, then pushes through peritoneum again, so then 2 layers of peritoneum
What can & cant cryptorchid testes do?Retained testes are capable of steroidogenesis but not spermatogenesis
Why don't we want to keep cryptorchid testes in, even if they can't make sperm to get bitches pregnant?Retained testis predisposed to neoplasia (10x more likely) & testicular torsion
If you are trying to ID a cryptorchid testicle w/ US, what do you try to look for?Mediastinum testis
What are some ways to Dx cryptorchid?Visual inspection
Careful palpation
Palpation of prostate (bilateral)
Ultrasound
GnRH stimulation test (bilateral)
FSH & LH levels
What would FSH & LH levels be like in a cryptorchid?Would be increased if castrated...so if cryptorchid prolly lower
What are the 2 pathogeneses that can lead to Orchitis?(1) Infxn
(2) Autoimmune
Examples of INFECTIOUS czs of Orchitis?Retrograde from prostate or Lower URT
Hematogenous eg. B. canis
Directly through penetrating wound
Examples of AUTOIMMUNE czs of Orchitis?Often 2° to Infxn / inflammation
Damage to blood-testis barrier
How does Orchitis present ACUTELY?Swelling & pain
May also get systemic signs eg. Pyrexia, hind limb lameness, purulent preputial discharge
How does Orchitis present CHRONICALLY?Non-painful enlargement of testis
Testes soft on palpation or maybe fibrotic
Often get atrophy of unaffected testis
**If you see a dog w/ scrotal enlargement, what should you automatically do?All dogs w/ scrotal enlargement should be tested for Brucellosis
Should you do FNA for Dx of Orchitis?Last resort - wouldnt do if Orchitis w/ infectious cz (tracking of Infxn) & might get autoimmune rxn against testis. So she really wouldnt do 1 esp if Orchitis (if testicular degeneration, could be a last ditch hope--sterility due to autoimmune Rx still likely)
How does Orchitis look like on US?Inflammation = Patchy hypoechoic areas, looks mottled & there is a loss of the mediastinum testes
What should Tx for Orchitis be like?Try anti-inflammatories & ABx, but after a day or so, should do hemi-orchidectomy if valuable breeding, if not just castrate...& make sure doesnt have Brucella
What is brucellosis czd by?Brucella canis, a Non-motile, gram-neg coccobacillus
How can Brucella be Xmitted?Ingestion, Inhalation, Venereal
How do animals infected w/ Brucella shed it?Infected animals shed organism in urine, semen, saliva & nasal secretions
What are the major CSs of Brucella in MALE dogs?****Epididymitis!
*Orchitis

Scrotal dermatitis
Oligozoospermia
Uveitis
Meningitis
Discospondylitis
Osteomyelitis
Cystitis & pyo granulomatous dermatitis
How do you control Brucella?Castration, Housed away from susceptible animals & immunocompromised humans, Intermittent antibiotic therapy helps to decrease shedding
What are 2 major risk factors for testicular neoplasia?Older animals, & Retained testes
3 most common types of testicular neoplasia? (Which is the most common?)Sertoli Cell Tumor!!!!! (most common)
Seminoma
Interstitial/Leydig Cell Tumor
What are the CSs of testicular neoplasia?Testicular enlargement w/o pain, May have signs of paraneoplastic syndrome w/ some tumors
What is the most common type of testicular tumor in retained testes?Sertoli cell
How malig is Sertoli cell tumor? How does it often present?Low malignancy, 1 testes usually grossly enlarged & the other atrophic (sertoli single)
Does Sertoli cell tumor have an associated paraneoplastic syndrome?Commonly associated w/ feminizing paraneoplastic syndrome due to estrogen secretion
Which tumor has feminizing paraneoplastic syndrome? Why? What does it present like?Sertoli cell tumor (technically the other 2 do also). Bc the tumor secretes estrogen.

You will see:
Pancytopenia (Nonregenerative anemia, pale mm, leukopenia, petechiation, epistaxis...remember estrogen suppresses bone marrow)
Bilaterally symmetrical alopecia
Hyperpigmentation of inguinal skin
Gynecomastia
Pendulous preputial sheath
What is a seminoma? What is its malignancy like?Tumor of germ cells w/in testes, Low malignancy
Does seminoma have an associated paraneoplastic syndrome?May be associated w/ feminizing paraneoplastic syndrome
Which testicular neoplasia is more common in SCROTAL testes?Interstitial/Leydig Cell Tumor
What is an Interstitial/Leydig Cell Tumor? What is its malignancy like?Usually small & discrete & may not be detected clinically w/ low malig.
Does interstitial/leydig cell tumor have an associated paraneoplastic syndrome?Yes
(1) Hyperestrogenism
(2) Hypertestosteronism
Which tumor of the testes can cz hypertestosteronism, & how is this characterized?interstitial/leydig cells can get this (theyre the cells that make T) & you will see Prostate Dz; perianal adenoma; perianal & tail gland hyperplasia, perineal hernia
Is Torsion of the Spermatic Cord more common in retained or testicular testes?RETAINED
CSs of torsion of the spermatic cord?Acute abdomen (Eg. Anorexia, vomiting, abdominal pain, lethargy, pyrexia)
Swelling of the scrotum may or may not be painful
How would torsion of the spermatic cord appear on U/S?Decreased echogenicity (darker color), Decreased blood flow (Doppler)
memorize