Therio- Bovine- The Bull Reproductive Diseases

untimely's version from 2015-08-29 18:57

dzs and probs

Question Answer
what is Impotentia coeundi? three main reasons this might happen?inability to copulate-- Poor libido, Inability to mount, Inability to achieve intromission
what is Impotentia generandi? three main reasons why this might happen?Fertilization failure-- Conditions of the testes, Conditions of the epididymis, Seminal vesiculitis
10 things that might cause Inability to achieve intromission?Haematoma penis, Shunts, Trauma, Balanoposthitis, Adhesions, Hair rings, Penile neoplasia, Persistent frenulum, Deviations of the penis, Lamina interna prolapse/preputial eversion
what is intromission?the action or process of inserting the penis into the vagina in sexual intercourse
4 possible reasons for Poor libido, leading to inability to copulate?Immaturity or inexperience, Reared in isolation, Poor management (slippery floors, previous bad experience), Multi-sire herd (dominance issues)
3 reasons for Inability to mount, leading to inability to copulate?PAIN (esp back/hindlimb pain), Foot lesions, DJD in any joint esp. hindlimbs
legs too straight is called what? too bent?straight- post-legged. bent- sickle-hocked
Inability to achieve intromission---> failure of erection could be due to? (2)(1) Haematoma penis (Ruptured or broken penis) (2) Shunts through tunica albuginea
Inability to achieve intromission---> penile Abnormalities that prevent intromissionDeviations of the penis
Inability to achieve intromission---> Abnormalities that prevent protrusion of the penis (4)(1) Lamina interna prolapse/preputial eversion (2) Balanoposthitis (3) Strangulation & necrosis of the penis (Hair rings) (4) Penile neoplasia
*what is Phimosis?Stricture of the preputial orifice so that penis cannot be extruded
*what is Paraphimosis?Inability to withdraw the penis back into the prepuce
*what is priapism?Persistent erection in the absence of sexual stimulation (usually dogs)
what is Hematoma penis? where does this usually occur, and why? best way to ID?Ruptured or broken penis. Usually @ dorsal aspect of distal sigmoid flexure. Due to trauma eg. Cow moved or fell when bull mounted. Bull may be reluctant to mount, and there is a Characteristic swelling just cranial to scrotum
if you see a Characteristic swelling just cranial to scrotum, what do you think it is?hematoma penis
what are some Sequelea Hematoma penis?Lamina interna prolapse, Abscessation, Adhesions, Shunts
what is the treatment for hematoma penis?IMMEDIATE sexual rest (Conservative treatment?), Salvage slaughter?, Surgical treatment within 7 days followed by sexual rest (possible complications like shunt formation)
Deviations of the penis--> what are some different kinds of deviations?Ventral (“Rainbow penis”), Corkscrew (these two are possibly heritable), Persistent frenulum (heritable), Diphallus (VERY rare)
when is a corkscrew penis ok?AFTER intromission it is normal
Lamina interna prolapse/preputial eversion is most common in which type of cattle, and why does it happen?Bos indicus, Weak retractor muscles of prepuce
Lamina interna prolapse/preputial eversion--> what makes this condition worse? how do you tx?hanging down, so Becomes traumatised which exacerbates condition. Treatment includes Elevate prolapse (Hessian sling/bandage with pipe), Cold water hydrotherapy, Emollient dressings (corticosteroids?). If conservative Rx doesn’t work, then may need to perform surgery =“Reefing” procedure (complications include stenosis with phimosis)
how does Balanoposthitis prevent intromission?prevents protrusion of the penis
what are 2 causitive agents of balanoposthitis?BHV-1, Ureaplasms/mycoplasms
clinical signs of balanoposthitis?May be mild, May get 2° infection, Swelling & pain, Dysuric, Fetid, preputial discharge
who do Hair rings usually happen to, and why?young bulls who are experiencing increasing mounting behavior but "miss" and get lots of hairs tangled around their penis
which neoplasia can cause Inability to achieve intromission, and what does it cause?Fibropapillomas (Bovine papillomavirus), Young bulls, May get hemorrhage & ulceration and may impair libido. Also May cause paraphimosis. Some regress spontaneously, you can also do sx, prog is good
Impotentia Generandi--> Conditions of the Testes--> Testicular hypoplasia: what is happening with this problem?Incomplete development of the germinal epithelium in the testis
Impotentia Generandi--> Conditions of the Testes--> Testicular hypoplasia: CSs? DD?Inadequate scrotal curcumference, Soft testes, Abnormal spermiogram (Oligozoospermia, Teratozoospermia~). DD: Testicular degeneration
*Testicular degeneration--> what are Temperature-related causes of this prob?Environmental temperature, Scrotal insulation (eg. fat), Long-standing pyrexia, Local inflammation (unilat. Orchitis), Scrotal frostbite
Testicular degeneration--> what are stress-related causes of this prob?transport
*Testicular degeneration--> which infectious agent can cause this?IBR (herp)
Testicular degeneration--> dietary causes?Zn or Vit A deficiency
*Testicular degeneration--> age related cause?senile degeneration
Testicular degeneration--> iatrogenic causesCorticosteroid administration
Testicular degeneration--> environmental causes?Radiation; Heavy metals
Testicular degeneration results in infertility how soon? Clinical signs?Infertility usually 4-8 wks after insult. Libido is usually NOT affected. Testes softer on palpation, and there will be an abnormal spermiogram (Oligozoospermia, Teratozoospermia, Increased foreign cells such as spermatogenic cells)...May or may not be permanent. (retest after a sperm cycle--60 days)
Orchitis can be caused in what two general ways?primary infection (eg. Penetrating wound) or hematogenous spread
what are 4 common pahogens which can cause orchitis?Bovine enteric viruses, Brucella spp, TB, Pyogenic bacteria eg. T. pyogenes
what are the clinical signs of orchitis? is Bi or Uni lateral orchitis more common?Unilateral orchitis more common. Heat, pain, swelling, May get abscessation, Altered gait, Systemic pyrexia. If condition progresses to chronic, testis will become shrunken, fibrotic with adhesions to tunica & scrotum.
if only one testicle is affected by orchitis, why are you still worried about the other one?Localized inflammation may cause temperature dependent degeneration in the unaffected testi
CQ: what is the tx of choice in a valuable bull with unilateral orchitis in order to preserve his future breeding potential?hemiorchidectomay of affected testes (dont want temp dependent degen of unaffected teste)
Epididymitis can occur through what two routes?Primary infection or spread from orchitis
clinical signs of epididymitis?Heat, pain, swelling, Temperature-induced degeneration of unaffected testis (Treatment of choice: hemiorchidectomy), Unilateral epididymitis (reduced fertility), Bilateral epididymitis (Obstruction with sterility)
Seminal vesiculitis is most common in who? what are some organisms which can cause this?YOUNG bulls (<2y), can be caused by Various organisms eg. B. bovis, IBR, mycoplasms, T. pyogens, E.coli
Clinical signs of the ACUTE phase of seminal vesiculitis? CHRONIC phase?(1) ACUTE: Localized peritonitis = reluctance to mount/copulate. upon palpation you will feel enlarged, painful glands. CHRONIC= Infertility, upon palpation you will feel reduced in size, fibrotic glands
how does seminal vesciculitis affect the spermiogram?ABNORMAL!! Decreased motility, Increased pH, Increased # of WBC’s, RBCs
how do you treat Seminal vesiculitis in the ACUTE phase? CHRONIC phase?ACUTE: High doses of antibiotics. CHRONIC: sx? slaughter
what is Azoospermia?no sperm
what is Oligozoospermia?low numbers of sperm
what is Asthenozoospermia?reduced motility of sperm
what is Teratozoospermia? abnormal morphology of sperm

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