Therio- Bovine- The bull BSE

untimely's version from 2015-08-31 03:08

bull BSE

Question Answer
what is a BSE?Breeding Soundness Examination
what is Impotentia coeundi?inability to copulate
what are some reasons why a bull would be unable to copulate?Poor libido, Inability to mount, Failure of penile extrusion, Penile deviation, Failure of intromission
what is Impotentia generandi?inability to generate spermatozoa
what are some reasons a bull would be unable to generate spermatozoa?Conditions of the testes, Conditions of the epididymis, Seminal vesiculitis
Indications for performing a BSE?Own use, Sale, Semen donation, Insurance
what what age would you want to perform a BSE, and is there any variation on this?depends on species! Bos taurus > 15 months, Bos indicus > 18 months
what does a BSE not tell us?does not evaluate a bull’s libido, nor does it ensure that a bull will remain a satisfactory potential breeder the entire breeding season-- NOT A GUARANTEE OF FERTILITY
what exactly DOES a BSE tell us?We can only certify on this day that the bull appears to be breeding sound (NOT A GUARANTEE OF FERTILITY)
what are the 6 components of a BSE?1. History 2. IDENTIFICATION!!! 3. General clinical examination 4. Specific genital examination 5. Semen evaluation, 6.Venereal diseases
why do we care about date of LAST service on the history for the BSE?make sure it's not old sperm in there
what are some INDIVIDUAL history questions you should be asking for the BSE?Age of first service, Date of last service, Previous semen collection/BSE (results), Disease & Vaccincation Hx, Reason for performing BSE, Serving ability – not usually performed during BSE due to logisitics. Ask the owner if he has seen the bull mount and mate normally.
what are some HERD history questions you should be asking for the BSE?Breeding system, Cow:Bull ratio (too many for him to service?),Conception/Calving rate, Abnormalities in cow herd, Average condition of cows
what are the three types of Preputial conformation?“V”; “Y” or “X” conformation (X is excessive umbilical fold)
what is the limit for how long a preputium can hang before it is considered excessive/undesirable?Should be above an imaginary line drawn from carpus to hock
what type of prolapse is concerning for a BSE?Lamina interna prolapse (a perputial prolapse)-- consider if it is intermittent or permanent
what should you be looking for on the preputial opening?Discharges, Abscessation, ticks
*What type of penis does the bull have?Fibro-elastic (only other type is musculocarvenous, which is horses and dogs)
what should you check the bull's penis for?Make sure penis freely mobile in sheath, with no adhesions
Scrotal examination--> what length should it be? what other parameter should you check?Ideally above the hocks, Scrotal circumference
why do you not want too large of a scrotum?fat deposits= temp too high= poor sperm quality
***WHAT IS THE MIN SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCE FOR BOS INDICUS? BOS TAURUS?Bos indicus: min 32cm. Bos taurus: min 34cm
what does Scrotal circumference relate to with offspring?Size indicates early onset of puberty in female offspring (also linked to sperm production)
what three things are you looking for with the exam of the testes?symmetrical, Firm and elastic consistency (not too hard or soft), Freely mobile (she said: hard= fibrosis, soft= degeneration, and adhensions might mean orchitis/epididiymitis)
what should the consistency of the Epididymis be? what else should you be looking for?Firm & elastic consistency, check for Head, tail & body and symmetry
Spermatic cord consists ofPampiniform plexus, Cremaster muscle, Ductus deferens
why do we want testes to be cool?fewer sperm abnormalities
***explain the heat exchange mechanisms of the testesoutside body, no hair, cremaster mm (up and down), panpiniform plexus with countercurrent exchange, sweat glands on scrotal skin.... dartos
which accessory sex glands does the bull have?all of them! prostate, seminal vesicles, ampulla, Bulbourethral
how would you describe the bull prostatepoorly developed
what should you know about the Vesicular glands of bulls?Often get infected in younger bulls--> Seminal vesiculitis--> localized peritonitis, sore, dont wanna mount, dec libido.. palpation (heat, swelling, painful)
name 2 methods of semen collectionArtificial vagina (AV), Electroejaculation (EE)
what 5 parameters are you looking for upon MACROscopic examination of the semen?volume, color, consistency, odor, pH
*what color should normal semen be?white/ivory (NOT grey) (gurnsey or jersey aka channel breeds can be a little more yellowish)
*what is semen consistency linked with, and what should normal consistency be?linked to sperm concentration, should be creamy (not watery or milky)
*what would normal odor of semen be?Slight chlorine
*what is normal pH of semen?6.2-6.8
how does electroejaculation change one of the parameters of semen?makes more alkaline
what does... Yellow, red, brown, or green/brown semen mean?yellow= urine (or Channel (aka gurnsey or jersey) breed), red= hge, brown= old hge, green/brown= feces
watery semen meanspoor concentration of sperm
what would a low semen pH (more acidic) indicate?has been standing for a while (anaerobic metabolism)
once you collect your semen, what is your #1 concern?COLD SHOCK at any point in your examination will adversely affect the results. Keep everything (slides, coverslips, extender) warm
what 4 things are you assessing on the MICROscopic examination of semen?(1) motility (mass/gross motility or individual) (2) morphology (3) Foreign Cell Smear (4) Sperm concentration
how do you assess mass/gross motility? what is the minimum rating that is acceptable?use “Hanging drop” method, need at least FAIR (Generalized oscillation) rating (rapid swirling is very good, slower swirling is good, and Sporadic oscillation is poor)
how do you assess Individual motility? what is the min rating that is acceptable?Under a coverslip; will probably need to dilute with extender. Need at least FAIR (30-49%) (very good is >70%, good is 50-69%, and poor is <30%
what can you use Eosin-nigrosin stain for?you can tell how many sperm are DEAD (pink) or ALIVE (white) in a sample when stained
*Need a minimum of _________% normal morphology of sperm to be classified as satisfactory potential breeder 70
Various systems for classifying sperm defects- what are 3 systems?(1) Major & Minor (2) 1°, 2° and 3° (3) Compensable & Non-compensable
what are the types of defect which would be classified as primary defects?(originating from testes) All head defects & most tail defects (Some defects can be either primary or secondary eg. Proximal droplets & detached heads)
what are the types of defects which would be classified as secondary defects?(originating from epididymus) Distal midpiece reflex (Some defects can be either primary or secondary eg. Proximal droplets & detached heads)
what are the types of defects which would be classified as tertiary defects?(iatrogenic) Coiled tails
what does Primary, Secondary & Tertiary classification of the sperm look at/mean?Denotes origin, but not severity of defect. (1) PRIMARY: originated in testes during spermatogenesis (2) SECONDARY: originated in epididymis during maturation. (3) TERTIARY: iatrogenic
explain what they mean by Major & Minor Defects of sperm?MAJOR: associated with infertility. MINOR: not associated with infertility
what is a Compensable sperm defect? ex?increasing sperm numbers can compensate for the defect. Eg. sperm that are immotile & cannot reach the uterine tube (Loose heads, DAG’s, Midpiece reflex) or sperm that will reach the uterine tube but cannot bind with the oocyte (Eg. acrosome defects) <--bc only some are like this, so more numbers will compensate
what is a Non-compensable sperm defect? ex?increasing sperm numbers will not compensate for the defect. Sperm that can reach the oocyte and bind with the ZP, but may have lower fertility (eg. Diadem defect; head defects)
what is a Foreign Cell Smear? how do you view it, examples?any cells that are not sperm and are in semen sample. Use dif quick/Make a fat-thin smearEg. WBC’s (inflammation DD’s?); RBC’s; Spermatogenic cells
if you see Spermatogenic cells in your semen sample, what might you be suspecting?might indicate testicular degeneration
two ways to measure Sperm concentration?(1) Using photometer (2) haemocytometer (for manual count)
what are two venereal dzs which should be checked for on the BSE? which one are you, as a vet with obligations, more worried about?Campylobacter fetus subsp. Venerealis, and Tritrichomonas foetus(*REPORTABLE)
Satisfactory potential breeders meet how many requirements?ALL of them-- Scrotal circumference > minimum for age and breed, Mass motility= generalized oscillation or above (fair), Individual motility= 30-49% or above (fair), Morphologically normal spermatozoa= >70%, Physically sound
what does it mean if the bulls BSE is "Decision deferred"?Usually for young bulls with poor semen quality, Or mature bulls with a recent disturbance in spermatogenesis eg. Pyrexia. Repeat the exam either when the young bull is more mature, or when the sperm have fully re-developed (60 day cycle)