Therio - Bovine - Complications

drraythe's version from 2017-09-10 03:44

Complications to the fetus, hydrops

Question Answer
What is the timetable for a fetal mummification to happen?Happens when death is around 3-8mo gestation
What are the conditions necessary for a fetal mummification to happen?Where there is Death of fetus in utero w/o bacterial Infxn, along w/ persistence of CL + tightly closed cervix (so stuff stays in there & gets dried out & squished by contracting uterus)
How do you Dx & Tx a fetal mummification? What’s the prog?Can usually Dx by palpating a rock hard thing in the uterus, or palpates as preg but doesn’t calf. Can Tx w/ an Injxn of PGF, or possibly w/ lubrication of the birth canal & traction. Good prog (no uterine path + breeding potential not impaired)
Diff btwn what czs fetal mummification vs fetal maceration?Mummy = No bact infxn.
Macer = YES bact infxn
What are the conditions necessary for a fetal maceration to happen?Death of fetus in utero w/ bacterial Infxn, along w/ regression of CL + partially open cervix. Therefore, Autolysis & bacterial action result in digestion of fetal tissue until only the fetal bones remain. Fetal bones may be discharged but some remain in the uterus causing the uterus to react & thicken
If there was Mucopurulent, foul smelling, fetid vaginal discharge, do you think it was a mummification or maceration?Maceration-- bc bact are decaying the fetus inside the mother
How do you Dx & Tx fetal maceration? What is the prog?Dx by rectal palpation, feeling of crepitus, open cervix & discharge. Tx is Acute stage AB & fluids, but only so slaughter value of cow can be salvaged. If the cervix is open possible removal of fetal bones is possible-- do NOT perform sx though- (Post op complications of peritonitis &/or septicemia). Prog is poor; future breeding potential nil
Mummification vs maceration → what is going on w/ the CL in both of these?Mummy → persistence (hence closed cervix). Maceration → regression
Hydrops refers to what 2 conditions? How is it defined?Hydroallantois & hydramnion. Defined as Excess production of fetal fluids
Which is more common-- hydroallantois or hydroamnion?Hydroallantois
What are the CSs of Hydroallantois?Rapid (over 5-20 days) enlargement of abdomen in late gestation. Tachycardia, ANxiety, reduced appetite, dehydration, metabolic problems; cow may become recumbent, unable to rise. Cow will look barrel shaped from behind.
What is the pathogenesis of Hydroallantois?Due to Placental Disfunction, where there are a deficient number of caruncles present & large areas of adventitious placentation. (More common in cows carrying fetuses produced by IVF or other reproductive technologies)
What is the prognosis & the complications of hydroallantois?Guarded to poor prognosis, complications which can occur bc of this are Retained fetal membranes & metritis, herniation through ventral abdominal muscles, prepubic tendon rupture, as well as an abnormal & non-viable fetus
What is Tx like for hydroallantois?Depends on severity of condition & likelihood of recurrence (which is high). Consider salvage slaughter, in dairy cattle, may need to try salvage lactation, in which case you Induce parturition (remember uterine atony due to distention, therefore will need to assist w/ calving), Examine regularly after induction, & may need fluids to compensate for metabolic derangements
Adventitious placentation implies which type of hydrops?Hydroallantois
CSs of Hydroamnion?Slow accumulation of amniotic fluid during the last half of gestation, healthy cows carrying over term bc fetus does not induce partus
What is the pathogenesis of Hydroamnion?Associated w/ abnormal fetus (often brain defects) this is unable to swallow the amniotic fluid sufficiently leading to a gradual accumulation of fluid in the amniotic cavity
Conditions associated w/ hydroamnion incld...“Bull dog” calves in Dexter cattle, muscle contractor monsters in Red-Danish cattle, small calves w/ pituitary hypoplasia in Guernsey cattle, Hydrocephalic calves in Hereford cattle, Schistosomas Reflexus calves
(Not sure if important) what's Schistosoma Reflexa? What does it predispose to?Predispose to hydroamnion, this is a condition where calf is severely deformed & basically born inside out.
What is the dx, Tx & prog for hydroamnion?Dx w/ rectal palpation, w/ the Tx, might be genetic = choose different sire. Prog for mom is fair to good
Which usually has complications- hydroallantois or hydroamnionHydroallantois
Which develops faster- hydroallantois or hydroamnion?Hydroallantois has Rapid enlargement over 5-20 D period in late gestation (hydroamnion is a slow accumulation during the last half of gestation)
CSs of hydroallantois vs hydroamnion?Allantois: SEVERELY distended abdomen
Amnion: Cows carry over term, some abdominal distension.
Compare pathogenesis of hydroallantois vs hydroamnion?Allantois: Abnormal placentation
Amnion: abnormal fetus


Question Answer
When does vaginal prolapse happen most commonly?BEFORE calving!
What does 1st degree vaginal prolapse mean?Intermittent prolapse of the vaginal floor
What does 2nd degree vaginal prolapse mean?Continuous prolapse of the vaginal floor
What does 3rd degree vaginal prolapse mean?Cervix & entire vagina are continuously prolapsed
What does 4th degree vaginal prolapse mean?Same as 3rd (cervix & entire vagina are continuously prolapsed) w/ deep necrosis & adhesions & possibly peritonitis
What are the 2 main cz of vaginal prolapse?(1) Weakness of the constrictor muscle of the vestibulum &
(2) stretching of the suspensory ligaments of genital tract
What are some genetic predispositions of vaginal prolapse? (Who is most at risk?)Beef breeds (Hereford, Charolaise, Brahman, Brangus..)
5 predisposing factors to vaginal prolapse?Genetics
Obesity (especially retroperitoneal fat eg. Show heifers)
Pregnancy (in late pregnancy due to relaxation & increased intra-abdominal pressure)
High roughage feeding (increased rumen size leading to increased intra-abdominal pressure)
Self-perpetuation (increased straining due to the prolapse itself)
How do you Tx a vaginal prolapse? (In general)Retention of the prolapsed tissue until partus, after that the problem usually resolves on its own. Cow should not be used for breeding again bc prolapse will recur. Use a caudal epidural ANx to abolish straining, & cleaned w/ non-irritant fluid & lubricate it, then prolapse gently replaced & retained
What is the Bühner’s Method of treating a vaginal prolapse? (Short version)Epidural, then cut a hole above & below the vulva, & then take a giant needle & purse string around the vulva through the incisions. Knot it & leave enough to pull it out later (before calving) [SEE SLIDE 36 for long version]
Before doing the Buhner’s method of Tx of vag prolapse, always do what 1st?EPIDURAL
How do Prolapse pins help prevent vaginal prolapse?Pin vulvar lips together, little bars "jail in" the vagina
Would you use Michev's or Buhner’s technique for CHRONIC vaginal prolapse?Michev's
What is Michev’s Techniques for treating vaginal prolapse?This is for chronic vaginal prolapses, & allows cow to calf w/o removal of device. Replace prolapse & take a giant flare based pin (prolapse pin) & pass through vaginal wall, through sacrosciatic ligament, & secured in gluteal region on outside of body w/ button disks
Which type of cattle is more prone to uterine torsion?Bos Taurus > Bos indicus
What are predisposing factors that might lead to uterine torsion?Lack of exercise, poor uterine tone, possibly slipping/falling
How many degrees of torsion will a uterus experience to cz dystocia?Greater than 90*
When does uterine torsion usually occur?Usu. Occurs at Stage 1 partus, but may occur from 5th mo of pregnancy
How can you Dx a uterine torsion? (2 ways) Tell which way the uterus is rotated?(1) The vaginal exam during partus will reveal a twisted cranial
(2) During a rectal exam you will feel Tautness of broad lig. dorsal & lying over the rotated uterus on opposite side of torsion ie. If torsion to the left, then tautness will be on the right side (right towards the left (if you’re behind the cow)
How can you treat uterine torsion? (3)(1) Manual detorsion per vaginum – if <90° & can grasp calf to “swing” over
(2) Detorsion by rolling the cow
(3) Caesarean section
How/when would you perform Manual detorsion of uterus per vaginum?Do this if the cervix is open enough to allow passage of hand & fetal head or buttocks can be grasped, & the dam is standing. Give an Epidural + tocolytic (clenbuterol) to relax uterus. (STRONG) Operator grasps fetus & attempts to swing away from side of torsion
explain how you would perform uterine Detorsion by rolling the cowCow is placed in lateral recumbency on the side to which the uterus is rotated. Both hind legs + forelegs are tied together & A plank is placed across the cow’s abdomen & a person sits on it to try & fix the uterus in place while the Cow is rolled away from affected side while trying to keep the uterus in place w/ the plank [slide 64 diagram]
examples of Other dropsical conditions (uncommon) incld.. (Name possible czs)- (3)(1) Fetal ascites (Infectious (Brucella) / non-infectious)
(2) Oedema of allantochorion (Brucella)
(3) Fetal anasarca (extreme generalized edema)
What is Hysterocele?Herniation of the uterus
Which tendon is at risk of rupturing due to preg/birth?Ruptured pre-pubic tendon (ventral abdomen looks dropped down)