Therio- Bovine- Complications of Pregnancy

untimely's version from 2015-08-23 18:49

complications to the fetus, hydrops

Question Answer
what is the timetable for a Fetal mummification to happen?Happens when death is around 3-8mo gestation
what are the conditions necessary for a fetal mummification to happen?where there is Death of fetus in utero without bacterial infection, along with persistence of CL + tightly closed cervix (so stuff stays in there and gets dried out and squished by contracting uterus)
how do you dx and tx a fetal mummification? whats the prog?can usually dx by palpating a rock hard thing in the uterus, or palpates as preg but doesnt calf. Can tx with an injection of PGF, or possibly with lubrication of the birth canal and traction. Good prog (no uterine path + breeding potential not impaired)
diff between what causes fetal mummification vs fetal maceration?mummy= no bact infxn. macer= YES bact infxn
what are the conditions necessary for a fetal maceration to happen?Death of fetus in utero with bacterial infection, along with regression of CL + partially open cervix. Therefore, Autolysis & bacterial action result in digestion of fetal tissue until only the fetal bones remain. fetal bones may be discharged but some remain in the uterus causing the uterus to react and thicken
if there was Mucopurulent, foul smelling, fetid vaginal discharge, do you think it was a mummification or maceration?maceration-- because bact are decaying the fetus inside the mother
how do you dx and tx fetal maceration? what is the prog?dx by rectal palpation, feeling of crepitus, open cervix and discharge. Tx is Acute stage AB and fluids, but only so slaughter value of cow can be salvaged. If the cervix is open possible removal of fetal bones is possible-- do NOT perform sx though- (Post op complications of peritonitis &/or septicaemia). Prog is poor; future breeding potential nil
mummification vs maceration--> what is going on with the CL in both of these?mummi-> persistence (hence closed cervix). Maceration--> regression
Hydrops refers to what two conditions? how is it defined? hydrallantois and hydramnion. defined as Excess production of foetal fluids
which is more common-- hydrallantois or hydraminon?Hydroallantois
what are the clinical signs of Hydroallantois?rapid (over 5-20 days) enlargement of abdomen in late gestation. Tachycardia, anxiety, reduced appetite, dehydration, metabolic problems, cow may become recumbent, unable to rise. Cow will look barrel shaped from behind.
what is the pathogenesis of Hydroallantois?due to Placental dysfunction, where there are a deficient number of caruncles present and large areas of adventitious placentation. (More common in cows carrying fetuses produced by IVF or other reproductive technologies)
what is the prognosis and the complications of hydroallantois?guarded to poor prognosis, complications which can occur because of this are Retained fetal membranes and metritis, herniation through ventral abdominal muscles, prepubic tendon rupture, as well as an abnormal and non-viable fetus
what is treatment like for hydroallantois?Depends on severity of condition & likelihood of recurrence (which is high). Consider salvage slaughter, In dairy cattle, may need to try salvage lactation, in which case you Induce parturition (remember uterine atony due to distention, therefore will need to assist with calving), Examine regularly after induction, and May need fluids to compensate for metabolic derangements
Adventitious placentation implies which type of hydrops?hydroallantois
clinical signs of Hydroamnion?slow accumulation of amniotic fluid during the last half of gestation, healthy cows carrying over term because fetus does not induce partus
what is the pathogenesis of Hydroamnion?associated with abnormal foetus (often brain defects) this is unable to swallow the amniotic fluid sufficiently leading to a gradual accumulation of fluid in the amniotic cavity
Conditions associated with hydromnion include...“bull dog” calves in Dexter cattle, muscle contractor monsters in Red-Danish cattle, small calves with pituitary hypoplasia in Guernesey cattle, hydrocephalic calves in Hereford cattle, Schistosomas reflexus calves
(not sure if important) what's Schistosoma Reflexa? what does it predispose to?predispose to hydroamnion, this is a condition where calf is severely deformed and basically born inside out.
what is the dx, tx and prog for hydroamnion?dx with rectal palpation, with the tx, might be genetic= choose different sire. Prog for mom is fair to good
which usually has complications- hydroallantois or hydroamnionhydroallantois
which develops faster- hydroallantois or hydroamnion?Hydroallantois has Rapid enlargement over 5-20 D period in late gestation (hydroamnion is a slow accumulation during the last half of gestation)
CSs of hydroallantois vs hydroamnion?allantois: SEVERELY distended abdomen. amnion: Cows carry over term, some abdominal distension.
compare pathogenesis of hydroallantois vs hydroamnion?allantois: Abnormal placentation. amnion: abnormal fetus


Question Answer
when does vaginal prolapse happen most commonly?BEFORE calving!
what does 1st degree vaginal prolapse mean?intermittent prolapse of the vaginal floor
what does 2nd degree vaginal prolapse mean?continuous prolapse of the vaginal floor
what does 3rd degree vaginal prolapse mean?cervix and entire vagina are continuously prolapsed
what does 4th degree vaginal prolapse mean?same as 3rd (cervix and entire vagina are continuously prolapsed) with deep necrosis and adhesions and possibly peritonitis
what are the two main cause of vaginal prolapse?(1) weakness of the constrictor muscle of the vestibulum and vulva (2) stretching of the suspensory ligaments of genital tract
what are some genetic predispositions of vaginal prolapse? (who is most at risk?)beef breeds (Hereford, Charollais, Brahman, Brangus..)
5 predisposing factors to vaginal prolapse?Genetic, obesity (especially retroperitoneal fat eg. Show heifers), pregnancy (in late pregnancy due to relaxation and increased intra-abdominal pressure), high roughage feeding (increased rumen size leading to increased intra-abdominal pressure), self-perpetuation (increased straining due to the prolapse itself)
how do you tx a vaginal prolapse? (in general)retention of the prolapsed tissue until partus, after that the problem usually resolves on its own. cow should not be used for breeding again bc prolapse will recur. Use a caudal epidural anaesthesia to abolish straining, and cleaned with non-irritant fluid & lubricate it, then prolapse gently replaced and retained
what is the Bühner’s Method of treating a vaginal prolapse? (short version)epidural, then cut a hole above and below the vulva, and then take a giant needle and purse string around the vulva through the incisions. knot it and leave enough to pull it out later (before calving) [SEE SLIDE 36 for long version]
before doing the buhner;s method of treatment of vag prolapse, always do what first?EPIDURAL
how do Prolapse pins help prevent vaginal prolapse?pin vulvar lips together, little bars "jail in" the vagina
would you use michev's or buhner's technique for CHRONIC vaginal prolapse?michev
what is Michev’s Techniques for treating vaginal prolapse?this is for chronic vaginal prolapses, and allows cow to calf without removal of device. replace prolapse and take a giant flare based pin (prolapse pin)and pass through vaginal wall, through sacrosciatic ligament, and secured in gluteal region on outside of body with button disks
which type of cattle is more prone to uterine torsion?Bos taurus > Bos indicus
what are predisposing factors which might lead to uterine torsion?lack of exercise, poor uterine tone, possibly slipping/falling
how many degrees of torsion will a uterus experience to cause dystocia?greater than 90*
when does uterine torsion usually occur?Usu. Occurs at Stage 1 partus, but may occur from 5th month of pregnancy
how can you dx a uterine torsion? (2 ways) tell which way the uterus is rotated?(1) the vaginal exam during partus will reveal a twisted cranial vagina (2) During a rectal exam you will feel Tautness of broad lig. dorsal & lying over the rotated uterus on opposite side of torsion ie. If torsion to the left, then tautness will be on the right side (right towards the left (if you’re behind the cow) [see slide 59 for diagram]
how can you treat uterine torsion? (3)(1) Manual detorsion per vaginum – if <90° and can grasp calf to “swing” over (2) Detorsion by rolling the cow (3) Caesaraen section
how/when would you perform Manual detorsion of uterus per vaginum?Do this if the cervix is open enough to allow passage of hand and foetal head or buttocks can be grasped, and the dam is standing. Give a Epidural + tocolytic (clenbuterol) to relax uterus. (STRONG) Operator grasps foetus and attempts to swing away from side of torsion
explain how you would perform uterine Detorsion by rolling the cowCow is placed in lateral recumbency on the side to which the uterus is rotated. Both hindlegs + forelegs are tied together and A plank is placed across the cow’s abdomen and a person sits on it to try and fix the uterus in place while the Cow is rolled away from affected side while trying to keep the uterus in place with the plank [slide 64 diagram]
examples of Other dropsical conditions (uncommon) include.. (name possible causes)- (3)(1) Foetal ascites (Infectious (Brucella) / non-infectious) (2) Oedema of allantochorion (Brucella) (3) Foetal anasarca (extreme generalized edema)
what is Hysterocoele?herniation of the uterus
which tendon is at risk of rupturing due to preg/birth?Ruptured pre-pubic tendon (ventral abdomen looks dropped down)

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