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Therio - Bovine - Bull Repro Dz

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drraythe's version from 2017-09-10 03:45

Dzs & probs

Question Answer
What is Impotentia coeundi? 3 main reasons this might happen?Inability to copulate:
Poor libido
Inability to mount
Inability to achieve intromission
What is Impotentia generandi? 3 main reasons why this might happen?Fertilization failure:
Conditions of the testes
Conditions of the epididymis
Seminal vesiculitis
10 things that might cz Inability to achieve intromission?Hematoma penis
Shunts
Trauma
Balanoposthitis
Adhesions
Hair rings
Penile neoplasia
Persistent frenulum
Deviations of the penis
Lamina interna prolapse/preputial eversion
What is intromission?The action or process of inserting the penis into the vagina in sexual intercourse
4 possible reasons for Poor libido, leading to inability to copulate?Immaturity or inexperience
Reared in isolation
Poor management (slippery floors, previous bad experience)
Multi-sire herd (dominance issues)
3 reasons for Inability to mount, leading to inability to copulate?PAIN (esp back/hind limb pain)
Foot lesions
DJD in any joint esp. hind limbs
Legs too straight is called what? Too bent?Straight: post-legged
Bent: Sickle-hocked
Inability to achieve intromission → failure of erection could be due to? (2)(1) Hematoma penis (Ruptured or broken penis)
(2) Shunts through tunica albuginea
Inability to achieve intromission → penile Abnormalities that prevent intromissionDeviations of the penis
Inability to achieve intromission → Abnormalities that prevent protrusion of the penis (4)(1) Lamina interna prolapse/preputial eversion
(2) Balanoposthitis
(3) Strangulation & necrosis of the penis (Hair rings)
(4) Penile neoplasia
*What is Phimosis?Stricture of the preputial orifice so that penis cannot be extruded
*What is Paraphimosis?Inability to w/draw the penis back into the prepuce
*What is priapism?Persistent erection in the absence of sexual stimulation (usually dogs)
What is Hematoma penis? Where does this usually occur, & why? Best way to ID?Ruptured or broken penis. Usually @ dorsal aspect of distal sigmoid flexure. Due to trauma eg. Cow moved or fell when bull mounted. Bull may be reluctant to mount, & there is a Characteristic swelling just cranial to scrotum
If you see a Characteristic swelling just cranial to scrotum, what do you think it is?Hematoma penis
What are some sequelae of Hematoma penis?Lamina interna prolapse
Abscessation
Adhesions
Shunts
What is the Tx for hematoma penis?IMMEDIATE sexual rest (Conservative Tx?), Salvage slaughter?, Surgical Tx w/in 7 days followed by sexual rest (possible complications like shunt formation)
Deviations of the penis → what are some different kinds of deviations?Ventral (“Rainbow penis”)
Corkscrew (these 2 are possibly heritable)
Persistent frenulum (heritable), Diphallus (VERY rare)
When is a corkscrew penis ok?AFTER intromission it is normal
Lamina interna prolapse/preputial eversion is most common in which type of cattle, & why does it happen?Bos indicus, Weak retractor muscles of prepuce
Lamina interna prolapse/preputial eversion → what makes this condition worse? How do you Tx?Hanging down, so becomes traumatized which exacerbates condition. Tx inclds elevate prolapse (Hessian sling/bandage w/ pipe), Cold-water hydrotherapy, Emollient dressings (corticosteroids?)
If conservative Rx doesn’t work, then may need to perform surgery = “Reefing” procedure (complications incld stenosis w/ phimosis)
How does Balanoposthitis prevent intromission?Prevents protrusion of the penis
What are 2 causative agents of Balanoposthitis?BHV-1
Ureaplasms/mycoplasms
CSs of Balanoposthitis?May be mild
May get 2° Infxn
Swelling & pain
Dysuric
Fetid, preputial discharge
Who do Hair rings usually happen to, & why?Young bulls who are experiencing increasing mounting BH but "miss" & get lots of hairs tangled around their penis
Which neoplasia can cz Inability to achieve intromission, & what does it cz?Fibropapillomas (Bovine papillomavirus), Young bulls may get hemorrhage & ulceration & may impair libido. Also May cz paraphimosis. Some regress spontaneously, you can also do sx, prog is good
Impotentia Generandi → Conditions of the Testes → Testicular hypoplasia: what is happening w/ this problem?Incomplete development of the germinal epithelium in the testis
Impotentia Generandi → Conditions of the Testes → Testicular hypoplasia: CSs? DDx?Inadequate scrotal circumference
Soft testes
Abnormal spermiogram (Oligozoospermia, Teratozoospermia~)
*DDx: Testicular degeneration*
*Testicular degeneration → what are Temperature-related czs of this prob?Environmental temperature
Scrotal insulation (eg. fat)
Long-standing pyrexia
Local inflammation (unilat. Orchitis)
Scrotal frostbite
Testicular degeneration → what are stress-related czs of this prob?Transport
*Testicular degeneration → which infectious agent can cz this?IBR (herp)
Testicular degeneration → dietary czs?Zn or Vit A deficiency
*Testicular degeneration → age related cz?Senile degeneration
Testicular degeneration → iatrogenic czsCorticosteroid administration
Testicular degeneration → environmental czs?Radiation; Heavy metals
Testicular degeneration results in infertility how soon? CSs?Infertility usually 4-8 wks after insult. Libido is usually NOT affected
Testes softer on palpation, & there will be an abnormal spermiogram (Oligozoospermia, Teratozoospermia
Increased foreign cells such as spermatogenic cells)...May or may not be permanent
(retest after a sperm cycle--60 days)
Orchitis can be czd in what 2 general ways?1° Infxn (eg. Penetrating wound) or hematogenous spread
What are 4 common pathogens which can cz Orchitis?Bovine Enteric Viruses
Brucella spp
TB
Pyogenic bacteria eg. T. pyogenes
What are the CSs of Orchitis? Is Bi or Uni lateral Orchitis more common?Unilateral Orchitis more common. Heat, pain, swelling, May get abscessation, Altered gait, Systemic pyrexia. If condition progresses to chronic, testis will become shrunken, fibrotic w/ adhesions to tunica & scrotum.
If only 1 testicle is affected by Orchitis, why are you still worried about the other one?Localized inflammation may cz temperature dependent degeneration in the unaffected teste
CQ: what is the Tx of choice in a valuable bull w/ unilateral Orchitis in order to preserve his future breeding potential?Hemiorchidectomy of affected testes (don’t want temp dependent degen of unaffected teste)
Epididymitis can occur through what 2 routes?1° Infxn or spread from Orchitis
CSs of epididymitis?Heat, pain, swelling, Temperature-induced degeneration of unaffected testis (Tx of choice: Hemiorchidectomy), Unilateral epididymitis (reduced fertility), Bilateral epididymitis (Obstruction w/ sterility)
Seminal vesiculitis is most common in who? What are some organisms which can cz this?YOUNG bulls (<2y)
Can be czd by various organisms eg. B. bovis, IBR, mycoplasms, T. pyogens, E.coli
CSs of the ACUTE phase of seminal vesiculitis? CHRONIC phase?(1) ACUTE: Localized peritonitis = reluctance to mount/copulate. Upon palpation, you will feel enlarged, painful glands. CHRONIC = Infertility, upon palpation you will feel reduced in size, fibrotic glands
How does seminal vesiculitis affect the spermiogram?ABNORMAL!!
Decreased motility
Increased pH
Increased # of WBC’s
RBCs
How do you treat Seminal vesiculitis in the ACUTE phase? CHRONIC phase?ACUTE: High doses of ABx
CHRONIC: sx? Slaughter
What is Azoospermia?No sperm
What is Oligozoospermia?Low numbers of sperm
What is Asthenozoospermia?Reduced motility of sperm
What is Teratozoospermia?Abnormal morphology of sperm
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