Therio - Bovine - Bull BSE

drraythe's version from 2017-09-10 02:39

Bull BSE

Question Answer
What is a BSE?Breeding Soundness Examination
What is Impotentia coeundi?Inability to copulate
What are some reasons why a bull would be unable to copulate?Poor libido
Inability to mount
Failure of penile extrusion
Penile deviation
Failure of intromission
What is Impotentia generandi?Inability to generate spermatozoa
What are some reasons a bull would be unable to generate spermatozoa?Conditions of the testes
Conditions of the epididymis
Seminal vesiculitis
Indications for performing a BSE?Own use, Sale, Semen donation, Insurance
What age would you want to perform a BSE, & is there any variation on this?Depends on species! Bos taurus > 15 mos, Bos indicus > 18 mos
What does a BSE not tell us?Does not evaluate a bull’s libido, nor does it ensure that a bull will remain a satisfactory potential breeder the entire breeding season-- NOT A GUARANTEE OF FERTILITY
What exactly DOES a BSE tell us?We can only certify on this day that the bull appears to be breeding sound (NOT A GUARANTEE OF FERTILITY)
What are the 6 components of a BSE?1) Hx
3) General clinical examination
4) Specific genital examination
5) Semen evaluation
6) Venereal Dzs
Why do we care about date of LAST service on the Hx for the BSE?Make sure it's not old sperm in there
What are some INDIVIDUAL Hx questions you should be asking for the BSE?Age of 1st service
Date of last service
Previous semen collection/BSE (results)
Dz & Vx Hx
Reason for performing BSE
Serving ability – not usually performed during BSE due to logistics. Ask the owner if he has seen the bull mount & mate normally.
What are some HERD Hx questions you should be asking for the BSE?Breeding system
Cow:Bull ratio (too many for him to service?)
Conception/Calving rate
Abnormalities in cow herd
Average condition of cows
What are the 3 types of Preputial conformation?“V”; “Y” or “X” conformation (X is excessive umbilical fold)
What is the limit for how long a preputium can hang before it is considered excessive/undesirable?Should be above an imaginary line drawn from carpus to hock
What type of prolapse is concerning for a BSE?Lamina interna prolapse (a preputial prolapse) -- consider if it is intermittent or permanent
What should you be looking for on the preputial opening?Discharges, Abscessation, ticks
*What type of penis does the bull have?Fibro-elastic (only other type is musculocarvenous, which is horses & dogs)
What should you check the bull's penis for?Make sure penis freely mobile in sheath, w/ no adhesions
Scrotal examination → what length should it be? What other parameter should you check?Ideally above the hocks, Scrotal circumference
Why do you not want too large of a scrotum?Fat deposits = temp too high = poor sperm quality
Bos taurus: min 34cm
What does Scrotal circumference relate to w/ offspring?Size indicates early onset of puberty in female offspring (also linked to sperm production)
What 3 things are you looking for w/ the exam of the testes?Symmetrical
Firm & elastic consistency (not too hard or soft)
Freely mobile (she said: hard = fibrosis, soft = degeneration, & adhesions might mean Orchitis/epididymitis)
What should the consistency of the Epididymis be? What else should you be looking for?Firm & elastic consistency, check for Head, tail & body & symmetry
Spermatic cord consists ofPampiniform plexus, Cremaster muscle, Ductus deferens
Why do we want testes to be cool?Fewer sperm abnormalities
***Explain the heat exchange mechanisms of the testesOutside body, no hair, cremaster mm (up & down), pampiniform plexus w/ countercurrent exchange, sweat glands on scrotal skin.... dartos
Which accessory sex glands does the bull have?All of them! Prostate, seminal vesicles, ampulla, Bulbourethral
How would you describe the bull prostatePoorly developed
What should you know about the Vesicular glands of bulls?Often get infected in younger bulls → Seminal vesiculitis → localized peritonitis, sore, dont wanna mount, dec libido... palpation (heat, swelling, painful)
Name 2 methods of semen collectionArtificial vagina (AV)
Electroejaculation (EE)
What 5 parameters are you looking for upon MACROscopic examination of the semen?Volume
*What color should normal semen be?White/ivory (NOT grey) (Guernsey or jersey aka channel breeds can be a little more yellowish)
*What is semen consistency linked w/, & what should normal consistency be?Linked to sperm concentration, should be creamy (not watery or milky)
*What would normal odor of semen be?Slight chlorine
*What is normal pH of semen?6.2-6.8
How does electroejaculation change 1 of the parameters of semen?Makes more alkaline
What does...? Yellow, red, brown, or green/brown semen mean?Yellow = urine (or Channel breed(aka Guernsey or jersey))
Red = HE
Brown = Old HE
Green/Brown = Feces
Watery semen meansPoor concentration of sperm
What would a low semen pH (more acidic) indicate?Has been standing for a while (anaerobic metabolism)
Once you collect your semen, what is your #1 concern?COLD SHOCK at any point in your examination will adversely affect the results. Keep everything (slides, coverslips, extender) warm
What 4 things are you assessing on the MICROscopic examination of semen?(1) Motility (mass/gross motility or individual)
(2) Morphology
(3) Foreign Cell Smear
(4) Sperm concentration
How do you assess mass/gross motility? What is the minimum rating that is acceptable?Use “Hanging drop” method, need at least FAIR (Generalized oscillation) rating (rapid swirling is very good, slower swirling is good, & Sporadic oscillation is poor)
How do you assess Individual motility? What is the min rating that is acceptable?Under a coverslip; will probably need to dilute w/ extender. Need at least FAIR (30-49%) (very good is >70%, good is 50-69%, & poor is <30%
What can you use Eosin-nigrosin stain for?You can tell how many sperm are DEAD (pink) or ALIVE (white) in a sample when stained
*Need a minimum of _________% normal morphology of sperm to be classified as satisfactory potential breeder70
Various systems for classifying sperm defects- what are 3 systems?(1) Major & Minor
(2) 1°, 2° & 3°
(3) Compensable & Non-compensable
What are the types of defect that would be classified as 1° defects?(Originating from testes) All head defects & most tail defects (Some defects can be either 1° or 2° eg. Proximal droplets & detached heads)
What are the types of defects that would be classified as 2° defects?(Originating from epididymis) Distal midpiece reflex (Some defects can be either 1° or 2° eg. Proximal droplets & detached heads)
What are the types of defects that would be classified as 3° defects?(Iatrogenic) Coiled tails
What does 1°, 2° & 3° classification of the sperm look at/mean?Denotes origin, but not severity of defect.
1°: Originated in testes during spermatogenesis
2°: Originated in epididymis during maturation
3°: Iatrogenic
Explain what they mean by Major & Minor Defects of sperm?MAJOR: associated w/ infertility. MINOR: not associated w/ infertility
What is a Compensable sperm defect? Ex?Increasing sperm numbers can compensate for the defect. Eg. Sperm that are immotile & cannot reach the uterine tube (Loose heads, DAG’s, Midpiece reflex) or sperm that will reach the uterine tube but cannot bind w/ the oocyte (Eg. acrosome defects) ← bc only some are like this, so more numbers will compensate
What is a Non-compensable sperm defect? Ex?Increasing sperm numbers will not compensate for the defect. Sperm that can reach the oocyte & bind w/ the ZP, but may have lower fertility (eg. Diadem defect; head defects)
What is a Foreign Cell Smear? How do you view it, examples?Any cells that are not sperm & are in semen sample. Use dif quick/Make a fat-thin smear Eg. WBC’s (inflammation DD’s?); RBC’s; Spermatogenic cells
If you see Spermatogenic cells in your semen sample, what might you be suspecting?Might indicate testicular degeneration
Two ways to measure Sperm concentration?(1) Using photometer
(2) Hemocytometer (for manual count)
Which 2 venereal dzs should be checked for on the BSE? Which 1 are you, as a vet w/ obligations, more worried about?Campylobacter fetus subsp. Venerealis
Tritrichomonas fetus (*REPORTABLE)
Satisfactory potential breeders meet how many requirements?ALL of them -- Scrotal circumference > minimum for age & breed
Mass motility = generalized oscillation or above (fair)
Individual motility = 30-49% or above (fair)
Morphologically normal spermatozoa = >70%, Physically sound
What does it mean if the bulls BSE is "Decision deferred"?Usually for young bulls w/ poor semen quality, or mature bulls w/ a recent disturbance in spermatogenesis eg. Pyrexia. Repeat the exam either when the young bull is more mature, or when the sperm have fully re-developed (60-day cycle)