Therio- Bovine- Bovine Subfertility

untimely's version from 2015-08-30 23:23


Question Answer
what are 4 examples of conditions which might be considered bovine subfertility?(1) Functional Infertility (Anestrus; “Silent heat” & Cystic ovarian disease (2) Repeat breeder cow (3) Congenital defects of the genital tract (4) venereal dzs
what are the three conditions which compose functional infertility?(1) anestrus (2) Cyclic subestrus (“silent heat”) (3) Cystic Ovarian Disease (COD)
Functional Infertility is Most commonly associated with post-partum period due to what 2 things?(1) Hormonal changes (Prolactin ? Effect of expression of estrus?) (2) Stress: onset of lactation, Nutrition (cows often in a negative energy balance), social structures, Milking parlor (first calvers)
True anestrus & delayed puberty is usually caused by what 4 things?(1) POOR NUTRITION (2) Lactational anestrus (esp. beef, bc shes with her calf) (3) Heat stress (4) Anatomical problems eg. Freemartinism
explain situations which can cause poor/inadequate nutrition and can lead to functional infertility?during post partum period= negative energy balance, during puberty bc still trying to grow…. (65% of adult body mass = puberty)
what would you find on rectal palpation of a cow going through True anestrus/delayed puberty?Small inactive ovaries
how can you try to treat True anestrus & delayed puberty?Address underlying causes eg. Nutrition, and Can attempt to “kickstart” cycle with estrus synch with progestagens (CIDR)
what is Silent heat?Cow has normal ovarian activity in the absence of heat signs
what are 4 causes of silent heat?High incidence post partum, Suckling, Undernutrition, Management (poor estrus detection, slippery floors)
how might you be able to dx a silent heat?Rectal palpation (feel active ovaries), ultrasound exam, Milk progesterone test
how can you treat a silent heat?Estrus synch with vigorous heat detection or FT-AI
how would you define Cystic Ovarian Disease?one or more cystic structures on the ovary that Persist for > 10 days AND Prevent normal cyclic activity
who gets cystic ovarian disease most often? WHEN do they get it most often?Predominantly a disease in high-producing dairy cows, Highest incidence during the post-partum period
Follicular vs Luteal cysts--> what are the walls like for these?Follicular is thin walled (like blisters, remember) and luteal is thick walled
Follicular vs Luteal cysts--> which is more likely to have a single cyst?luteal (although can also be mult.)
Follicular vs Luteal cysts--> which hormones are produced by which?Follicular produces estrogens/androgens, luteal produce progesterone
Follicular vs Luteal cysts--> clinical signs of each?Follicular cysts (make estrogens) can cause anestrus, Nymphomania, Virilism (male characteristics), Raised tail root (long term estrogen)....LUTEAL cysts just cause anestrus
Follicular vs Luteal cysts--> how do you tx each?FOLLICULAR: GnRH, hCG, OvSynch programme, CIDR + PGF programme. LUTEAL CYSTS: induce luteolysis
Follicular vs Luteal cysts--> how do these appear on ultrasounds?FOLLICULAR is thin walled and dark inside. LUTEAL has a cobwebby appearance inside
GnRH analogues work how to cause what to happen to the cow?work on pituitary (the pituitary naturally makes FSH) which causes a new follicular wave to happen, and also (causes pituitary to release LH) which causes lutenization or ovulation (only ovulation if CL present, otherwise just make luteal tissue)
what is used to cause superovulation?injections of FSH analogues
how do FSH analogues affect the cow?Causes development of multiple follicles = superovulation


Question Answer
is repeat breeding a herd or individual problem?individual-- if it IS a group problem, Check bull / semen used for AI / Inseminator / heat detection
how do you define repeat breeder?A cow (heifer) that appears to have a normal genital tract, but fails to conceive after repeated (3+) inseminations
4 main reasons you might have a repeat breeder as an individual?(1) Endocrine disturbances (2) anatomic abnormalities (3) Uterine environment (4) Genetic abnormalities of the embryo
what are some endocrine disturbances which might cause a repeat breeder cow?Delayed ovulation? = aged ooctye. Heat stress??
what are possible anatomic abnormalities which could lead to a repeat breeder cow?Non-patent Uterine Tube?, adhesions
what are some examples of when the Uterine environment can lead to a repeat breeding cowSubclinical endometritis, Campylobacter/Trichomoniasis infection, Endometrial fibrosis, Damage to cervix, pyrexia
how common are genetic abnormalities of the fetus with cows? If there is, what would the COW be considered?very uncommon, but would lead to a repeat breeder
what are the 4 main reasons you might have repeat breeders as a group?(1) Natural service with infertile/sub-fertile bulls (2) Artificial insemination (technique, timing of insemination, poor semen quality) (3) nutritional deficiencies (4) Environmental temperature
what are three congenital defects which can lead to functional infertility?(1) free martinism (2) White Heifer Disease (3) Poor vulvar confirmation
what kind of problem is white heifer dz, and what are the problems this disease causes in the cow?a congenital defect leading to a persistant hymen, Segmental aplasia of the tubular genital tract, Uterus unicornis, double cervix
what problems does poor vulvar conformation lead to which can cause functional infertility?pneumo- or urovagina (congenital defect)
**WHICH is a VENEREAL disease-- Campylobacter fetus fetus or campylobacter fetus venerealis?venerealis (duh)
what problems does campylobacter fetus fetus cause?causes ABORTION BUT NOT INFERTILITY. It is NOT a venereal dz, but rather a GIT inhabitant
what type of organism is Campylobacter fetus venerealis?Gram-negative short, curved rod or spiral
explain the pathogenesis of Campylobacter fetus venerealisMaintained in preputial crypts of bulls (who show no clinical signs) (venereal dz)---> Spread by natural service or AI--> Causes (transient) endometritis, which Results in EED (hence needing rebreeding) or Occasional abortion
how does Campylobacter fetus venerealis affect the cows? (short term? long term?)Most cows rid themselves of infection & go on to conceive, but Some cows will remain chronic carriers & be a source of infection in following breeding season
how does Campylobacter fetus venerealis affect the BULLS? (short term? long term?)Younger bulls usually rid themselves of infection, but Older bulls (>3 yr) usually remain permanently infected (where it lives in the crypts of their preputum to infect mates)
what are the clinical signs of Campylobacter fetus venerealis in COWS? in BULLS?in cows, you will see Lengthened estrous periods/irregular estrus periods, repeat breeders, abortion (not as common). For BULLS, there are no clinical signs
how can you dx Campylobacter fetus venerealis in COWS?check Cervico-vaginal mucus during estrus or following abortion
how can you dx campylobacter fetus venerealis in BULLS? (explain details)Sheath scraping/Sheath wash which must be done 3 times with weekly intervals (low sensitivity of test). Place sample In phosphate buffered saline (PBS) on ice to be shipped to the lab within 24h for culture or IFAT (Immunofluorescent Antibody Testing)
which dz do you do sheath scrapings for?campy fetus venerealis (lives in preputium of bulls asymptomatically)
how do you treat COWS for campy fetus venerealis?Postpone breeding period for 60-90 days to allow immunity to develop. Cows with clinical abnormalities should be culled.
how do you treat BULLS for campy fetus venerealis?Double dose of vaccine with a 4 wk interval (most bulls), and can + streptomycin
what are some ways you can control/prevent campy fetus venerealis?TEST bulls BEFORE the breeding season! Cull all positive animals. You can vx, keep a closed herd, keep fences in good repair, and only use virgin bulls
what kinda organism is Tritrichomonas foetus?Flagellated single-cell protozoan
explain the pathogenesis of tritrichomonas foetus in the cowMaintained in preputial crypts of bulls--> Spread by natural service or AI or iatrogenically--> Causes (transient) endometritis/pyometra--> Results in EED Occasional abortion
does tritrich or campy cause the possible pyometria?TRITRICH
what is usually the end result of tritrich infection in COWS?Most cows rid themselves of infection & go on to conceive (immunity lasts +/- 15 months). Some cows will remain chronic carriers & be a source of infection in following breeding season
what is usually the end result of tritrich infection in BULLS?Younger bulls usually rid themselves of infection, Older bulls (>3 yr) usually remain permanently infected
what are the main clinical signs of tritrich in COWS?Irregular estrous cycles / Repeat breeders, (abortion), PYOMETRA<--unique
what are the clinical signs of tritrich in BULLS?asymptomatic, Sometimes mild balanoposthitis
what are signs that there may be a herd problem with tritrich?Many pregnancies at a younger than expected age (causes irreg estrous cycles)
*how do you dx tritrich? who do you wanna test?check the BULLS with Sheath scrape/Sheath wash for 3 times at weekly interval. Use PCR or in-pouch culture medium
how do you usually treat COWS for tritrich?Cows generally recover spontaneously
how do you usually treat BULLS for tritrich?Costly, labor-intensive & has a high rate of complications. Can use Dimetridazole per os, but can kill rumen critters (and lead to rumen stasis & thiamine deficiency), Metronidazole i/v, Administer with course of antibiotics( Micrococcus spp. In preputium inactives compound) (Diminazene topically in preputium?)
what are some ways to control tritrich?Vaccination of cows is partially efficacious, TEST bulls BEFORE the breeding season, Cull all positive animals/keep a closed herd/Keep fences in good repair/ Only use virgin bulls. Consider state regulations
if you notice there is a tritrich outbreak, what should you keep in mind as a vet?consider state regulations- some states have these
campy vs tritrich--> any differences in xmissin?both via venereal spread, tritrich can also be iatrogenic
campy vs tritrich--> any differences in tx?campy has 2vaccinations within 4 wks for bulls, tritrich tx is controversial (for cows, both is that they will clear on their own)
campy vs tritrich--> any differences in prevention/control?tritrich is vx of cows ONLY.
(Granular vulvovaginitis....usually caused by? what do you usually see with this problem?)Various mycoplasma & ureaplasma’s isolated. Can be present without any clinical signs, or can see: Heifers hold tails up & urinate frequently (due to vaginitis), Papules found in the vagina & vestibulum, Similar lesions may occur on penis & preputial mucosa of bulls. Abortion/infertility (endometritis, salpingitis). XMSSION via coitus/AI

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