The Teleological Argument

archiebw's version from 2016-05-18 09:22


Question Answer
Who was an old supporter of the argument?Socrates.
What three thing does the universe have, according to supporters?Order, purpose and regularity.
What two things might support the argument's premise?Changing seasons or the intricate and purposeful human body.
Which are the two parts of the argument?Design qua regularity and design qua purpose.
Which Way of Aquinas's comprises this argument?His Fifth Way.
What is the jist of Aquinas's argument? Everything works to a purpose but inanimate objects have no rational powers, therefore they are directed by an external power.
To what does Aquinas compare inanimate objects?Arrows directed by an archer.
Of what concept is Aquinas's argument in favour, and what does this mean?'Regularity of succession', and scientific laws that are predictable and lead to certain results.
By what theory is Aquinas influenced?Aristotle's theory of the Four Causes.
Who suggests Aquinas's claim that things in nature are directed to some purpose contradicts available evidence?Antony Flew.
Who claims Aquinas's argument already assumes what is at issue, that being whether God imposes regularity?Richard Swinburne.


Question Answer
For 'design qua purpose', to what is the universe compared?A machine with perfectly arranged parts.
When did 'design qua purpose' originate, and which man was at the forefront of science then?The 17th century, and Isaac Newton.
Why did belief in 'design qua purpose' not require belief in a *sustaining* God?Because it was conceivable that each part affected another part, like a machine.
Which man existing from 1749-1827 had something to say on the matter, and what did he say?Pierre Laplace, and everything was determined and would all eventually be explained scientifically.
Who made the watch analogy, in which book did he make it and when was it published?William Paley, and 'Natural Theology' (1802).
Which three things did Paley use as an example of design in nature?The intricacy of the human eye, bird's wings and fish's fins.
To what was the second part of Paley's argument related?'Design qua regularity'.
For the second part of his argument, to what did Paley point?Newton's laws of motion; the rotation of the planets and how they all observed gravity.
Who made the point about the destruction of the world if its forces varied only slightly?William Paley and Arthur Brown.
What four things would one observe about the watch in Paley's analogy?It has a purpose, the parts work together so are fit for this purpose, they are ordered and if they were arranged in a different way it would not work.
What did Paley state was not essential for the watch for it to appear designed, and whose criticism does this go against?Perfection, and David Hume.
How does Paley continue his watch analogy?By asking the reader to suppose that the watch produced other watches, positing that their admiration for it would increase, and concluding they would conclude the existence of a creator..


Question Answer
What does the ozone layer do?Absorbs the Sun's ultraviolet radiation and protects the Earth from its harmful effects.
Who used the ozone layer as an example of design, and what did he say it had?Arthur Brown, and "just the right thickness and exactly the correct defense."
What is an argument against Arthur Brown?The ozone layer existed before human life.
In what work did David Hume include his rebuttals of teleological arguments, and when was it released?'Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion', and 1779.
What does Hume use to specifically argue that the God of classical theism seems unlikely, and what does he say is more likely?The flaws of suffering and death in the world, and an apprentice god who has moved to bigger, better universes.
Why was discussing the design of the universe in human terms unacceptable, according to Hume?Because God transcends human understanding.
Why does the analogy of the world as a machine undermine the argument, according to Hume?Because machines are normally designed by many hands.
To what did Hume think it was more appropriate to compare the universe than a machine, and to what modern theory could this be compared?A vegetable or inert animal which grows of its own accord, and the 'Gaia' theory.
What was Epicurus's (341-270 BCE) fundamental belief?That the universe was just made up of space and eternal atoms which move and change.
What is the Epicurean Hypothesis?At the beginning of the universe, it consisted of particles in random motion, and these gradually evolved into order.
What is a good supporting argument for the Epicurean Hypothesis?The universe is eternal, so it is inevitable this ordered state would develop.
Which philosopher existing from 1806-1873 argued 'the problem of evil'?John Stuart Mill.
More recently, which theory has most notably challenged this argument?Darwinism.

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