The respiratory system

hasanahatesscience's version from 2017-06-04 03:24

Section 1

Question Answer
what does gas exchange refer tothe diffusion of CO2 and O2
cellular respirationoccurs in the body cells, burning of glucose to produce ATP. requires O2 and waste products (CO2 and H2)

Section 2

Question Answer
high o2 levels are neededair is 20% o2
lots of air moving into the bodyair needs to move to the lungs
the respiratory surface should be thin, most permeable to gases, large surface area and have a steep difussion gradient
in our bodies the steep concentrationis maintained by the heart pumping
gas exchange in terrestrial animalsbiggest challenge for land animals is drying out. gas exchange = trachea. insects have seperate set of tubes to move gas

Section 3

Question Answer
oral or nasal cavityboth mucus + cilia. cilia only in the nose. air is warmed, cleaned and moistened. oral:tonsils nasal: adenoids
pharynxmucus only. air is warmed, cleaned and moistened. epiglottus covers air pathways to prevent food entering trachea
larynx (voice box)mucus, no cilia. sound is produced, vocal chords vibrate
trachea (windpipe)both mucus + cilia. air is warmed, cleaned and moistened for air to pass. larynx>bronchi>lungs c shaped rings maintain tubular shape.
bronchiboth mucus +cilia is present. air is cleaned moistened and warmed. tubes-> lungsalso have cartilage rings to hold tubes open
bronchiolesboth mucus +cilia. cleans moistens and warms. muscles contract n relax controlling size of airways. bronchi and bronchioles are surronded by smooth muscles
alveolimucus is present. air sacs in bronchiole, exchange of O2 and CO2 occurs. thin wall next to blood vessels adjacent to capillaries

Section 4

Question Answer
the main ph sensor is the medulla oblongta. there are nerves which run directly from medulla oblongta to muscles
vagus nerveruns from medulla to the heart + intercostals (between ribbones)
pherenic nerveruns from medulla to the diaphragm.

Section 5

Question Answer
when there is High Co2 levels in the blood.goes to ph sensor >intercostal contraction rate increases and diaphragm contraction rate increases. this increases breathing rate leading it to expel more CO2
when there is Low Co2 levels in the bloodgoes to ph sensor >diaphragm + intercostal muscles leads breathing rate to decrease, retaining O2

Section 6

Question Answer
acidssubstance that dissolves in water. results in release of H ions. orange juice
basesubstance that dissolves in water and results in release of OH ions. soap, baking soda, bleach
human blood should be between7.35-7.45
strong acid (base)100% ionization. when added to water, 100% of the particles spilit apart to form ions
weak acid (base)when ionization is less than 100%
blood ph needs to stay between 7.35-7.45. in order for this to happenour blood has to contain BUFFERS
what is a buffer?weak acid +salt of an acid

Section 7

Question Answer
when blood Ph is 7.34 or less, the patient is inACIDOSIS
when blood Ph is more than 7.45 the patient is in ALKADOSIS

Section 8

Question Answer
what is acidosis?thru malfunction of gas exchange.
respiratory acidosiswhen co2 cant leave the body (asthma-bronchile tubes r swollen, gas exchange is slow
Pneumonia + pulmonary edemacause moisture to pool in alveoli
emphysemadue to smoking, alveoli dissolve and there is less gas exchange surface.
metabolic acidosisexcessive exercise restricted diet and diabetes
symptoms of acidosisheadache sleepy not conscious nausa vomitting diahera shortness of breath increased heart rate

Section 9

Question Answer
what is Alkalosiswhen blood ph excesseds 7.45 not eonugh co2 in the blood
respiratory alkalosishyper ventiliation
metabolic alkalosisoveruse of diaretics (water pills ) make you pee a lot. also, consuming too many antiacids (tums)
symptoms of alkalosisnausea, numbness, difficulty breathing, confusion, coma, muscle spasms, dizziness

Section 10

Question Answer
homeostasiskeeping internal balance. ex: blood pressure stomach acids, blood sugar, blood ph, body temp, o2 levels. these are all house keeping functions
breathingmoving air in and out of the lungs. occurs 15x a minute aka Ventiliation.
inhalingrequires contraction of a)intercostal muscles lifting ribs up and out. b)diaphragm flattens. These 2 muscles make the volume of the lungs bigger and air rushes in.
exhalingmuscles relax and air is forced out. abdominal muslces increase amount of exhalation

Section 11

Question Answer
regular vigourous excercise has the following impactA)strengthens all muscles.
B)increases # of mitochondria this increases basal metabolic rate. u burn more calories when ur asleep
c) increases amount of capillaries over alveoli means gas exchange is more efficient
d) improves the brains chemistry
e)boosts yourenergy
f) improves your sleepingpatterns

Section 12

Question Answer
colddue to virus
upper respiratory infectionNO FEVER
treatment: only symptoms r treated, anything to redaise body temp to denature virus proteins
influenza (flu)viral infection. upper

Section 13

Question Answer
sinusitisviral or bacterial infection
pain in chest near eyes or eyebrows.including stuffy nose.
treatment:saline rinse (neti pot)

Section 14

Question Answer
influenzaviral infection
upper respiratory infectionwith fever
lasts 10 daysur very sick during this time period. can be deadly
preventionflu shot
"friend of the aged"gentle death
pneumoniadue to infection of virus/bacteria/parasite. results in alveoli filling with fluid.

Section 15

Question Answer
asthmaconstriction of bronchi and bronchioles due to smooth muscles contracting.
what is the cause of thisgenetic predispostion +environmental trigger
triggers for asthma attackdirty air, exercise, perfumes, tobacco, cold air, respiratory infections, drugs.
treatmentpuffer or bronchi dilator which causes smooth bronchi muscles to relax

Section 16

Question Answer
bronchitisinflamattion of bronchi
made worse byair pollution
treatmentthere is no treatment

Section 17

Question Answer
emphysemaover flated lungs. bronchi n bronchioles cant be cleaned/mucus build up
when tobacco smoke is inhaledcilia are paralyzed (in trachea/bronchi/bronchioles)
tobacco smoke deposits on the inside of alveolicauses cells to dissolve and die
air pressure builds up in alveoli and they ripthen the lung hallows out and there is low gas exchange surface

Section 18

Question Answer
COPDchronic obstructure pulmonary disease, due to prolonged smoking
this is the combination ofbronchitis and emphysema.
appears afterage 40
first signhacking cough

Section 19

Question Answer
cystic fibrosisgenetic disorder which results in thick mucus filling tubes in the body.
tubes include bronchi/bronchioles,bile duct, pancreatic duct, fallopian tube.
this is due tofaulty protein transport

Section 20

Question Answer
lung cancer85% due to tobacco smoke
symptomschronic cough, fatigue, wheezing chest pain unexplained weight loss, spitting out blood/phlegm
treatment screening -catches 30% of cancers
screening a)physical x ray and chest ray.
screening b)SPUTUM cytology exam (looks for cancer cells in phelgm).
screening c)CT scan. small cell = aggressive. big small = not aggressive
diagnosistakes lung tissue for biopsy

Section 21

Question Answer
workplace lung damagecoal minsters lung, silicosis (grinders asthma) inhaling silica. abestos-single exposure is enough after inhaling
diagnostic techniques-respirometermeasures lung capacity
diagnostic techniques-endoscopetube with camera at the end, check for abstruction
diagnostic techniques-scannersx rays, ultrasound, CAT scan and MRI
treatments1)lasers (vapourizes obstructing) 2)lung transplant

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