The Problem of Evil

archiebw's version from 2016-05-18 12:00


Question Answer
In whose work did the problem of evil originate?The Greek philosopher Epicurus.
Who are three philosophers who argued the problem of evil?J.L. Mackie, Antony Flew and Richard Dawkins.
In which book does J.L. Mackie argue the problem of evil, and when was it published?'The Miracle of Theism' (1983)
Which fiction author included a passage relevant to the problem of evil, what did it concern, and in which book?Dostoevsky, soldiers throwing babies into the air and killing them with their bayonets, and 'The Brothers Karamazov'
What did J.L. Mackie suggest God could have done to circumvent the problem of evil, and what is his line of thinking?He could have made humans so that they always choose freely what is good, and ...
What type of insects demonstrate the evil in nature, according to Stephen Fry?Loa Loa eye worms, "insects whose whole life-cycle is to burrow into the eyes of children and make them blind."
What did Richard Dawkins have to say on the subject of evil in the world, and in which book? (QUOTE)"Nature is not cruel, only pitilessly indifferent," and 'River out of Eden'.
Between which two types of evil should we distinguish, and what is an example that apparently doesn't fit either?Natural evil and moral evil, and a fatal accident.
What are the two explanations of the problem of evil that are essential to learn?Evil is caused by creatures using their free will, and it is necessary for people to develop valuable moral qualities, like compassion.
To who is evil the privation of goodness, and which quotation of his encapsulates this?St. Augustine, and "evil is not a substance."
Who made the analogy of bad grapes and bad deckchairs, in what work, and what specifically does he say badness is about?Herbert McCabe, 'God, Evil and Divine Responsibility' and not living up to expectations.
Why does Augustine reject that evil is a power opposed to God?It would mean God had a rival and would thus not be omnipotent.
What, to Augustine, is evil *not*?An absence.
What commonly used word links in to the idea of evil being a privation?'Inhuman'
From what does Augustine say evil comes?God.
To Augustine, why can no-one be purely evil?Because to lack goodness, one has to have it with which to start.
To Augustine, of what is suffering a result?Disharmony.
How does breaking your arm relate to Augustine's cause of suffering, and what point in the Creation story demonstrates it?Your bones, nerves and muscles no longer work in harmony, and when Adam and Eve realise they are naked.
To Augustine, what is a consequence of creation being perfect?The inclusion of all types of beings.
To Augustine, how is natural evil also as a result of free will?It comes about through the actions of devils.
To Augustine, why are we all responsible for Adam's sin?Because we are his descendants and so were seminally (as in semen) present in him,
What is the name for Augustine's belief that the contrast between good and the lack of goodness highlights the beauty of goodness?'The aesthetic principle'
Who suggested Augustine's theodicy was implausible, in which work, and why might this be?John Hick, 'Evil and the God of Love', and he interpreted the Genesis story literally and many would say there is no convincing evidence devils (fallen angels) exist, not least that they cause natural disasters.
What did Alvin Plantinga say had to be possible for Augustine's theodicy to be possible?The existence of angels.
Which two philosophers have strongly defended the idea evil arises from humans misusing their free will?Richard Swinburne and Alvin Plantinga.
What is a scientific objection to Augustine's theodicy?The findings of geologists make it quite clear the Earth developed slowly over four billion years.
Why might one challenge Augustine's assertion that we are responsible for Adam's sin?Biology clearly indicates every person is a unique individual who inherits half their DNA from their mother and half from their father, and Augustine's ideas rely on outdated understanding of biology.
Who questioned why a perfect world would go wrong?Friedrich Schleiermacher.
Which part of Augustine's theory arguably contradicts the idea of an omnibenevolent God?We should be punished due to Adam's sin.


Question Answer
To Iranaeus, what word describes punishment and the consequences of punishment?Educative.
What should one note about universal salvation and Irenaeus?Universal salvation is a more modern interpretation, and Irenaeus actually believed in eternal damnation.
Who gave the most famous example of a modern Irenaean theodicy?John Hick.
What are the names of the two stages in which John Hick says humans develop, and what do these mean respectively?'Image' and 'Likeness', and the stage in which humans are "intelligent and religious animals" but spiritually immature and the stage in which humans have grown into a relationship with God.
How does Hick view the meaning of the Fall? As alluding to the epistemic distance.
In what way does Hick contradict the Bible, and why does he say this?He says humans were not created in the presence of God, and if they were they would be overpowered and incapable of choice.
How does Peter Vardy analogise Hick's theory?He likens God to a king not forcing a peasant girl to marry him but trying to win her heart.
What word does John Hick use to mean growth as a person?'Soul-making'
What practical examples does Hick give of moral growth?Improvement in morality in cultures across history.
What does John Hick say would have happened in a "world devoid both of dangers and rewards"? (QUOTE)"There would have been [...] no moral development of the human intellect and imagination, and hence of either the sciences or the arts, and hence of human civilisation or culture."
For John Hick to say 'in heaven all will be well' is what type of answer, and what does this mean?An eschatological answer, and concerned with the final destiny of the soul.
When does John Hick say developing from an 'image' of God into a 'likeness' will take place, unlike Irenaeus?After death.
Why could John Hick be said to be hypocritical? Use a key word.He criticises Augustine's theory for being implausible, but the eschatological aspect of his theory is arguably implausible.
Why might a Christian be against universal salvation?It goes against the idea of justice.
What is a basic criticism of Hick's theodicy?An omnibenevolent God is said to be responsible for natural disasters.
Why might Kant disagree with the picture Hick paints of God?Because He demonstrates himself to believe that the ends justify the means.


Question Answer
What does Swinburne call a world where the consequences of human actions do not matter?A 'toy world'.
What kind of universe did Swinburne believe God created?A 'half-finished' universe that humans can make better.
Who said God could have created a world in which humans always freely chose to do the right thing in addition to J.L. Mackie?Antony Flew.
Who first developed Process Theodicy, and what does this hold?Alfred North Whitehead, and God is not omnipotent and not separate from creation.

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