The Periodic Table and Families of Elements Part 1

allelipraise's version from 2017-06-22 19:20

Periodic Table

Question Answer
Periodic TableProvides clues to the physical and chemical properties of the elements and their compounds.
Vertical Group (Family) Assigned in Roman numerals: Groups I – VIII, except for inert gases (Group 0)
Horizontal Group (Period)
Transition elementsElements in which a d orbital is filled partially, starting at Group III-B and ending at Group II-B.
Lanthanides and actinidesInner transition elements
Lanthanides and actinides14 member families in which f orbitals have 1 to 14 electrons.
become more basic, and less electronegative (electropositive)Increasing metallic property?
Heavy metalsFound in the two bottom rows.
Metallic elementsProtein precipitants, major exception being the alkali metals. Therefore, they are toxic
AmphotericElements are equally acidic and basic.

Periodic Table

Question Answer
Diagonals or bridge elements The 1st member of the family can be quite unlike the other members; it more closely resembles the 2nd member of the adjacent group to the right.
Orbital electrons Predict the possible oxidation states, the shielding of nuclear charge, and the polarizability for each element.
Atomic radius and ionic radiiGive an indication of the relative size of the members of a family.
Atomic radius and ionic radii:Negative ionsalways larger than the neutral atom
Atomic radius and ionic radii:Positive ions always smaller
Ionization PotentialA measure of the energy required to remove an electron by overcoming the attractive force of the nucleus.
Ionization Potential:Metals low ionization potentials, readily form cations.
Ionization Potential:Nonmetalshigh ionization potentials
ElectronegativityAttraction of nucleus for electrons
Electronegativity:Metals low electronegativity, thus electropositive
Electronegativity:NonmetalsHigh electronegativity especially halogens; attract additional electrons to form anions.

The Periodic Table (Families)

Question Answer
I-AAlkali Metals
I-BCoinage Metals
II-AAlkaline Earth Metals
II-BVolatile Metals/Zinc Family
IIIBoron/Aluminum Family
IV-ACarbon Family
IV-BTitanium Family
V-ANitrogen Family
VIII-A/ Group 0Inert Gases

The Periodic Table (Groups)

Question Answer
Group IA: The Alkali Metals(Li)(Na)(K)(Rb)(Cs)(Fr)
Group IB: The Coinage Metals(Cu)(Ag)(Au)
Group IIA: The Alkaline Earth Metals(Be)(Mg)(Ca)(Sr)(Ba)(Ra)
Group IIB: The Volatile Metals(Zn)(Cd)(Hg)
Group IIIA:The Boron/Aluminum Family(B)(Al)(Ga)(In)(Tl)
Group IIIB(Sc)(Y)(La)(Ac)Lanthanides (rare earth elements),Actinides
Group IVA: Carbon Family(C)(Si)(Ge)(Sn)(Pb)
Group IVB: The Titanium Family(Ti)(Zr)(Hf)
Group VA: The Nitrogen Family(N)(P)(As)(Sb)(Bi)
Group VB(V)(Cb)(Nb)(Ta)
Group VIA: The Chalcogens(O)(S)(Se)(Te)(Po)
Group VIB(Cr)(Mo) (W): Wolfram(U)
Group VIIA: The Halogen Family(F)(Cl)(Br)(I)(At)
Pseudohalogens (Halogenoids)– CN- – CNO- – CNS- – N3- – [Fe(CN)6]3-
Group VII-B(Mn)(Tc)(Re)
Group VIII-A/O: The Inert Gases(He)(Ne)(Ar)(Kr)(Xe)(Ra)
Group VIII-B(Triads)– 1st: Iron (Fe), Cobalt (Co) and Nickel (Ni) – 2nd: Ruthenium (Ru), Rhodium (Rh) and Palladium (Pd) – 3rd: Osmium (Os), Iridium (Ir) and Platinum (Pt)
2nd and 3rd triadsplatinum metals/noble metals


Question Answer
Triads – 1st– Iron triadsIron (Fe), Cobalt (Co) and Nickel (Ni)
Triads– 2nd– light Pt metals-noble metalsRuthenium (Ru), Rhodium (Rh) and Palladium (Pd)
Triads– 3rd– heavy Pt metals-platinum/noble metalsOsmium (Os), Iridium (Ir) and Platinum (Pt)