The Heart

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Heart Anatomy and Function

Question Answer
The Valves between the Left and Right Ventricles and Atria are what kind of ValvesAtrioventricular Valves (AV Valves)
The Valve between the Right Atrium and Right VentricleTricuspid Valve
The Valve between the Left Atrium and Left VentricleBicuspid Valve
What is another name for Bicuspid ValveMitral Valve
The Pulmonic and the Aortic Valve are what kind of Valves?Semilunar
The Heart is surrounded by the ____ sacPericardial
How many Walls does the Pericardium haveTwo
What is the outer wall of the pericardium calledFibrous pericardium
What is the inner wall fo the pericardium calledSerous Pericardium
The heart is attached to the Diaphram, T or FT

Basic Heart Function

Question Answer
What is the Stroke VolumeThe amount of blood ejected from the Ventricles
During Diastole, which valves are open; closed?Atrioventricular valves are open, Semi-lunar valves are closed
During Systole, which valves are open; closed?Semi-lunar valves open, Atrioventricular valves are closed
During what phase of the Cardiac Cycle do the Coronary arteries receive the most blood perfusionDiastole
What are the two phases of the Cardiac Cycle?Diastole and Systole
What is Cardiac Output defined as?The amount of blood pumped from the heart in one minute
How is Cardiac Output calculated?Heart Rate x Stroke Volume
What is Blood pressure defined as?The force that blood exerts against the walls of arteries as it passes by them
What is the role of the Parasympathetic system?Slows down the heart rate and decreases blood pressure
What is the role of the Sympathetic system?Increases heart rate, contractility, and blood pressure
Receptors in the blood vessels, Kidneys, brain and heart constantly monitor the adequacy of Cardiac output; T or FT
What is the Role of Baroreceptors?Detect changes in pressure
What is the Role of Chemoreceptors?Sense changes in the chemical composition of the blood
Where are Barorewceptors found?The Heart or Main Arteries
What role do epinephrin and norepinephrine have?Increase heart rate and Stroke Volume

Autonomic Nervous System

Question Answer
Nervous control of the heart originates from where?The Medulla Oblongata (Part of the Brain Stem)
The Cardioinhibitor Nerve Center is part of the _____ nervous systemParasympathetic
The Cardioaccelerator Nerve Center is part of the _____ nervous systemSympathetic
Impulses from the Cardioaccelerator Center are transmitted to the hear by way of the ____ nervesSympathetic
Impulses from the Cardioinhibitor center are transmitted to the heart by way of the _____ nerveVagus
What is another name for neurotransmitters?Hormones
What are the two major categories of receptors?Alpha and Beta Receptors
What is the primary receptor the stimulates the heart?Beta Receptors
The sympathetic Branch causes the release of what Neurotransmitters?Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
The parasympathetic Branch releases what neurotransmitter?Acetylcholine
What is another name for the Sympathetic Branch?Adrenergic System
What is another name for the Parasympathetic Branch?Cholinergic System
What are the areas most affected by the parasympathetic fibers?SA node, Atria, AV Junction, and to a small extent, the Ventricles


Question Answer
Where is the SA node locatedPosterior wall of the Right Atrium below the opening of the SVC
What is the intrinsic rate of the SA node?60 to 100 bpm
Where is the AV node located?The floor of the right atrium
What causes the P Wave?Depolarization of the Right Atrium, Interatrial Septum, and Left Atrium
What does the flat line (PR Segment) after the P Wave represent?The impulse shooting rapidly through Bundle of His, left and right bundle branches, adn the terminal purkinje fibers
What is the Job of the Purkinje electrical impulseContracts the Ventricles

Section 3