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THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF CANNABIS AND CANNABINOIDS

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daju89's version from 2019-04-26 15:55

THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS

Question Answer
The treatment of chronic pain in adults (cannabis)conclusive or substantial evidence that CBMPs are effective
Antiemetics in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (oral cannabinoids) conclusive or substantial evidence that CBMPs are effective
For improving patient-reported multiple sclerosis spasticity symptoms (oral cannabinoids)conclusive or substantial evidence that CBMPs are effective
Improving short-term sleep outcomes in individuals with sleep disturbance associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic pain, and multiple sclerosis (cannabinoids, primarily nabiximols) moderate evidence that CBMPs are effective
Increasing appetite and decreasing weight loss associated with HIV/AIDS (cannabis and oral cannabinoids) limited evidence that CBMPs are effective
Improving clinician-measured multiple sclerosis spasticity symptoms (oral cannabinoids) limited evidence that CBMPs are effective
Improving symptoms of Tourette syndrome (THC capsules) limited evidence that CBMPs are effective
Improving anxiety symptoms, as assessed by a public speaking test, in individuals with social anxiety disorders (cannabidiol) limited evidence that CBMPs are effective
Improving symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (nabilone; one single, small fair-quality trial)limited evidence that CBMPs are effective
Better outcomes (i.e., mortality, disability) after a traumatic brain injury or intracranial hemorrhage (cannabinoids)Limited evidence of a statistic association with cannabinoids
Improving symptoms associated with dementia (cannabinoids)Limited evidence that CBMPs are ineffective
Improving intraocular pressure associated with glaucoma (cannabinoids) Limited evidence that CBMPs are ineffective
Reducing depressive symptoms in individuals with chronic pain or multiple sclerosis (nabiximols, dronabinol, and nabilone) Limited evidence that CBMPs are ineffective
Cancers, including glioma (cannabinoids)no or insufficient evidence to support or refute the conclusion that CBMPs are an effective treatment
Cancer-associated anorexia cachexia syndrome and anorexia nervosa (cannabinoids) no or insufficient evidence to support or refute the conclusion that CBMPs are an effective treatment
Symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (dronabinol) no or insufficient evidence to support or refute the conclusion that CBMPs are an effective treatment
Epilepsy (cannabinoids) no or insufficient evidence to support or refute the conclusion that CBMPs are an effective treatment
Spasticity in patients with paralysis due to spinal cord injury (cannabinoids)no or insufficient evidence to support or refute the conclusion that CBMPs are an effective treatment
Symptoms associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (cannabinoids) no or insufficient evidence to support or refute the conclusion that CBMPs are an effective treatment
Chorea and certain neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with Huntington’s disease (oral cannabinoids)no or insufficient evidence to support or refute the conclusion that CBMPs are an effective treatment
Motor system symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease or the levodopa-induced dyskinesia (cannabinoids) no or insufficient evidence to support or refute the conclusion that CBMPs are an effective treatment
Dystonia (nabilone and dronabinol)no or insufficient evidence to support or refute the conclusion that CBMPs are an effective treatment
Achieving abstinence in the use of addictive substances (cannabinoids) no or insufficient evidence to support or refute the conclusion that CBMPs are an effective treatment
Mental health outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia or schizophreniform psychosis (cannabidiol) no or insufficient evidence to support or refute the conclusion that CBMPs are an effective treatment
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CANCER

Question Answer
Incidence of lung cancer (cannabis smoking)moderate evidence of no statistical association with cannabis use
Incidence of head and neck cancersmoderate evidence of no statistical association with cannabis use
Non-seminoma-type testicular germ cell tumors (current, frequent, or chronic cannabis smoking) limited evidence of a statistical association with cannabis smoking
Incidence of esophageal cancer (cannabis smoking) no or insufficient evidence to support or refute a statistical association with cannabis use
Incidence of prostate cancer, cervical cancer, malignant gliomas, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, penile cancer, anal cancer, Kaposi’s sarcoma, or bladder cancer no or insufficient evidence to support or refute a statistical association with cannabis use
Subsequent risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia/acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, rhabdomyosarcoma, astrocytoma, or neuroblastoma in offspring (parental cannabis use) no or insufficient evidence to support or refute a statistical association with cannabis use
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CARDIOMETABOLIC RISK

Question Answer
The triggering of acute myocardial infarction (cannabis smoking) limited evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
Ischemic stroke or subarachnoid hemorrhagelimited evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
Decreased risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes limited evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
Increased risk of prediabeteslimited evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
The increased risk of acute myocardial infarctionno evidence to support or refute a statistical association with chronic effects of cannabis use
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RESPIRATORY DISEASE

Question Answer
Worse respiratory symptoms and more frequent chronic bronchitis episodes (long-term cannabis smoking)substantial evidence of a statistical association with cannabis smoking
Improved airway dynamics with acute use, but not with chronic use moderate evidence of a statistical association with cannabis smoking
Higher forced vital capacity (FVC) moderate evidence of a statistical association with cannabis smoking
Improvements in respiratory symptoms moderate evidence of a statistical association with the cessation of cannabis smoking
An increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) when controlled for tobacco use (occasional cannabis smoking)limited evidence of a statistical association with cannabis smoking
Hospital admissions for COPDno or insufficient evidence to support or refute a statistical association with cannabis smoking
Asthma development or asthma exacerbationno or insufficient evidence to support or refute a statistical association with cannabis smoking
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IMMUNITY

Question Answer
A decrease in the production of several inflammatory cytokines in healthy individuals limited evidence of a statistical association with cannabis smoking
The progression of liver fibrosis or hepatic disease in individuals with viral Hepatitis C (HCV) (daily cannabis use) limited evidence of no statistical association with cannabis smoking
Other adverse immune cell responses in healthy individuals (cannabis smoking)no or insufficient evidence to support or refute a statistical association with cannabis smoking
Adverse effects on immune status in individuals with HIV (cannabis or dronabinol use)no or insufficient evidence to support or refute a statistical association with cannabis smoking
Increased incidence of oral human papilloma virus (HPV) (regular cannabis use)no or insufficient evidence to support or refute a statistical association with cannabis smoking
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INJURY AND DEATH

Question Answer
Increased risk of motor vehicle crashessubstantial evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
Increased risk of overdose injuries, including respiratory distress, among pediatric populations in U.S. states where cannabis is legal moderate evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
All-cause mortality (self-reported cannabis use)no or insufficient evidence to support or refute a statistical association with cannabis use
Occupational accidents or injuries (general, non-medical cannabis use) no or insufficient evidence to support or refute a statistical association with cannabis use
Death due to cannabis overdose no or insufficient evidence to support or refute a statistical association with cannabis use
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PRENATAL, PERINATAL AND NEONATAL EXPOSURE

Question Answer
Lower birth weight of the offspringsubstantial evidence of a statistical association with maternal cannabis smoking
Pregnancy complications for the mother limited evidence of a statistical association with maternal cannabis smoking
Admission of the infant to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) limited evidence of a statistical association with maternal cannabis smoking
Later outcomes in the offspring (e.g., sudden infant death syndrome, cognition/academic achievement, and later substance use)insufficient evidence to support or refute a statistical association with maternal cannabis smoking
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PSYCHOSOCIAL

Question Answer
The impairment in the cognitive domains of learning, memory, and attention (acute cannabis use) moderate evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
Impaired academic achievement and education outcomes limited evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
Increased rates of unemployment and/or low income limited evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
Impaired social functioning or engagement in developmentally appropriate social roles limited evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
Impairments in the cognitive domains of learning, memory, and attention limited evidence of a statistical association between sustained abstinence from cannabis use
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MENTAL HEALTH

Question Answer
The development of schizophrenia or other psychoses, with the highest risk among the most frequent userssubstantial evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
Better cognitive performance among individuals with psychotic disorders and a history of cannabis usemoderate evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
Increased symptoms of mania and hypomania in individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorders (regular cannabis use)moderate evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
A small increased risk for the development of depressive disordersmoderate evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
Increased incidence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts with a higher incidence among heavier usersmoderate evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
Increased incidence of suicide completionmoderate evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
Increased incidence of social anxiety disorder (regular cannabis use)moderate evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
Worsening of negative symptoms of schizophrenia (e.g., blunted affect) among individuals with psychotic disorders moderate evidence of no statistical association with cannabis use
An increase in positive symptoms of schizophrenia (e.g., hallucinations) among individuals with psychotic disorderslimited evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
The likelihood of developing bipolar disorder, particularly among regular or daily users limited evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
The development of any type of anxiety disorder, except social anxiety disorderlimited evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
Increased symptoms of anxiety (near daily cannabis use) limited evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
Increased severity of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorderlimited evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
Changes in the course or symptoms of depressive disorders no evidence to support or refute a statistical association with cannabis use
The development of posttraumatic stress disorderno evidence to support or refute a statistical association with cannabis use
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PROBLEM CANNABIS USE

Question Answer
Stimulant treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during adolescence is not a risk factor for the development of problem cannabis use substantial evidence
Being male and smoking cigarettes are risk factors for the progression of cannabis use to problem cannabis usesubstantial evidence
Initiating cannabis use at an earlier age is a risk factor for the development of problem cannabis usesubstantial evidence
Increases in cannabis use frequency and the progression to developing problem cannabis usesubstantial evidence of a statistical association
Being male and the severity of problem cannabis use, but the recurrence of problem cannabis use does not differ between males and femalessubstantial evidence of a statistical association
Anxiety, personality disorders, and bipolar disorders are not risk factors for the development of problem cannabis use moderate evidence
Major depressive disorder is a risk factor for the development of problem cannabis use moderate evidence
Adolescent ADHD is not a risk factor for the development of problem cannabis use moderate evidence
Being male is a risk factor for the development of problem cannabis usemoderate evidence
Exposure to the combined use of abused drugs is a risk factor for the development of problem cannabis usemoderate evidence
Neither alcohol nor nicotine dependence alone are risk factors for the progression from cannabis use to problem cannabis usemoderate evidence
During adolescence the frequency of cannabis use, oppositional behaviors, a younger age of first alcohol use, nicotine use, parental substance use, poor school performance, antisocial behaviors, and childhood sexual abuse are risk factors for the development of problem cannabis usemoderate evidence
A persistence of problem cannabis use and a history of psychiatric treatment moderate evidence of a statistical association
Problem cannabis use and increased severity of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms moderate evidence of a statistical association
Childhood anxiety and childhood depression are risk factors for the development of problem cannabis uselimited evidence
The development of substance dependence and/or substance abuse disorder for substances including alcohol, tobacco, and other illicit drugsmoderate evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
The initiation of tobacco uselimited evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
Changes in the rates and use patterns of other licit and illicit substanceslimited evidence of a statistical association with cannabis use
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