The Co-Operative Principle

gemmalesley's version from 2017-05-09 18:09


Question Answer
What is the Co-Operative Principle?Talk exchanges usually consist of a joint effort and common purpose.
Grice's (1975) definition of Co-Operative Principle?Make your conversational contribution as is required, at the stage at which it occurs
Grice's (1975) definition continued... by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged.
Grice's Four MaximsQuantity, Quality, Relevance/Relation and Manner
QuantityMake your contribution as informative as required, but no more.
QualityDon't say anything for which you lack evidence.
Relevance/RelationBe relevant.
MannerBe perspicuous: don't be ambiguous or obscure, be brief.
Conversational ImplicatureOnly happens in a conversational context.
ImplicatureA level of meaning beyond words.
InferenceWhat the hearer deduces from evidence in the speaker's utterance.
5 Ways of Not Observing the MaximsFlouting, Violating, Infringing, Opting Out and Suspending
Flouting the MaximsDeliberately opting out for effect, to create an Implicature
Violating the MaximsIntentionally misleading/lying
Infringing the MaximsImperfect linguistic performance; i.e. by being drunk
Opting out of the MaximsBeing unwilling to observe the maxims.
Suspending the MaximsThe speaker is not expected to uphold the maxims.
Hedging the MaximsNot wanting to be seen to be not observing the maxims.