The Circulatory system Chapter Test

hasanahatesscience's version from 2017-05-25 21:31

Type 1 circ system

Question Answer
what goes on in an open circulatory systemthere are more nutrients and wastes but no gases
in insects, the blood is pumped forward in the dorsal aorta
after the blood is pumped through the dorsal aorta, it seeps thru the body sinuses and returns to the posterior heart

Type 2 circ system

Question Answer
what goes on in a closed circulatory systemall blood is contained in tubes
what are the tubes like?the tubes are under pressure
the blood transports both nutrients/wastes/gaseswhich bind to hemoglobin

The blood vessels-arteries

Question Answer
what are arteries jobmove away blood from the heart
what are the layers likehas endothelium, smooth muscle and connective tissue
what is pressure like inside of the tube?high pressure
special stucturearteriole (smaller tube)

blood vessels- capillaries

Question Answer
what are capillaries jobconnects arteries to veins
layersjust an endothelium
pressure inside of the tubelow pressure
special structureno special structure
what does a valve doshunts blood to correct capillary bed

blood vessels-veins

Question Answer
what are the veins jobmove blood towards heart
layershave endothelium/smooth muscle/connective tissue.
pressure inside of the tublow pressure
special structurevenule (smaller tube) valves

how valves in the veins work

Question Answer
doing exercise (squats) there is is contraction in the leg musclesthis squishes veins forcing blood up. valves stop backflow in pooling
varicose veinswhen the valves in the leg leak, veins become painful and distended

what happens in the capillary bed

Question Answer
a body cell is never more than2 cells away from a capillary
red blood cells fit neatlythru the capillaries like stacked coins
gas exchange occursin the capillary bed
gas exchange means o2 is released from red blood cell while co2 binds to it
nutrients diffuse of the plasmaand wastes diffuse

circulatory system pt 2

Question Answer
what is plasma made of90% h2o, 10% dissolved proteins, glucoses and wastes (co2)
syrum proteins (dissolved proteins)transporters like LDL and HDL (low and high density lipoproteins) hormones, vitamins, metal ions (helps enzymes work) blood clotting proteins, antibodys

White blood cells

Question Answer
white blood cells are nucleatedthey go thru mitosis
there are many typesand subtyoes
they act as the policebody guards of the body
fights infection but sometimes in error,they attack the body itself
when wbc attack the wrong thing this leads to allergies and autoimmune diseases (lupus, type 1 diabetes, rheuma tudarthritis)

Red blood cells

Question Answer
red blood cells are non nucleatedthey look incomplete
life span:120 days, they have mixed ages
made inthe bone marrow
contains hemoglobin moleculeswhich binds o2 and co2
plateletsfragments of cytoplasm, no nucleus. 500000ml of blood, used in blood clotting

Blood clotting - coagulation

Question Answer
step 1: there is a tear in the blood vessels so thenthe smooth muscle near the tear constrict. this is vasoconstriction
step 2: on the inside of the tear,collagen fibres are protruding. platlets adhere to the collagen fibres
step 3one of the clotting proteins called Fibrinogen becomes activated toFIBRIN. this is very sticky, strong and overlays platelet plug

the lymphatic system

Question Answer
in the lymphatic system there is a network of tubes, nodes and organs connected together and running next to the veinsit serves as a secondary drainage system which returns excess fluid to the heart
lymphis a clear water fluid
lymph travels thru the lymph vessles which are basically veins with valveslymph is filtered in lymph nodes which contain WBC to kill any bacteria trying to spread
this system spreads cancer cells spred through the body
lymph is killed bywhite blood cells located in lymph nodes

lymph glands

Question Answer
lymph glandssmall structures that inspect+filter lymph fliod to make sure theres no invaders
a lymph node contains WBC that defect and kill viruses and bacteria
if you have an infectionyour lymph nodes will stay swollen for months
lymph nodes are locatedunder the jaw, along spine, armpits and groin
spleenlocated under and around the stomach. they inspect blood + remove old red blood cells
thymuslocated on top of the heart (ventral). makes wbc
tonsils and adenoidslocated at back of the mouth + nose. they filter air/food for invaders

general structure of the heart

Question Answer
the hear is made of chambers tubes valves and pericardium
what are chambersatria, ventricles and they pump blood
what are tubesi)arteries (hi pressure) aorta, pulmonary artery. ii) veins (low pressure) vena cava and pulmonary vein iii)coronary arteries (dorsal and ventral) tiny blood vessels on the outside of the heart deliver nutrients to the heart muscle itself
what is pericardiumsac which heart sits, acts like bra/jock strap to stop heart from flopping around during movement
what are valvesthey stop backflow

The hearts electrical system

Question Answer
1) nerve impulse is sent along the vagus nerve to the S.A node node in the right atrium
2) the SA node "fires"/sends a wave of depolarization across both atria causingthem to contract. this forces blood into the ventricles
3)once wave of depolarization reaches AV node, causes AV node to firesending impulse down the bundle of His, and into the purkinje fibers. causes ventricles to contract + push blood into the lungs and body
electrical control of the heartcardiac muscle cells contract/twitch on their own. if there is no controller these cells will become out of synch and not pump blood
ECG (electrocardiogram)atria contracts, ventricles contract, rest and gets back to normal

Heart rate control

Question Answer
1.brain stem control has a pH sensor located in the MEDULLA OBLONGTA which samples blood Ph
when co2 levels are high after exercise blood becomes acidic
brain sends a message to thea)sa node to speed heart rate b)breathing muscles (diaphragm + intercostal muscles) to speed up breathing rate
this expels more co2 and your blood ph returns to normal (rises to 7.3)
2. if u feel excited/threatened this is recognized by your brain and it sends a message to the adrenal gland to release adrenalin(epinephine)
adrenalin stimulatesheart, lungs skeletal muscle. caused by fight/flight response
adrenalin inhibitsall digestive functions

Heart sounds

Question Answer
heart soundslub=av valves close, atria filling, ventricle contracting. dub=aortic/pumonary valves closing, atria-contracts ventricles-filling
pulmonary circulationblood to lungs RA-RV-PA-L-PV
systemic circulationblood to body ra-rv-aorta-arteries-aterioles-capillaries-venules-veins-v.c
blood pressuremeasurement of pressure in arteries
systolic pressuredue to left ventricle contracting
diastolic pressurewhen left ventricle is at rest
120/80perfect B.P for 18 year old men
140/90high blood pressure
110/70still okay
blood pressure depends on1)cardiac output (how hard ur heart contracts) 2)Resistance in tubes: clogging due to sugar and smoking

a Healthy Circulatory system, what can go wrong? In the heart

Question Answer
heart failureinability of heart to move blood. results in pulmonary edema, fluid build up in alveoli. treatment: better lifestyle medication, heart transplant
arrythimiaweird electrical stimulus in heart. if it gets bad=fibrulation. Problem is that the heart is inefficient at pumping blood therefore a clot can form in the ventricle. treatment: defibrillator

Problems with tubes

Question Answer
aneurysmweak spot (bulge) in blood vessel, may burst. treatment: surgery
plaquecholesterol deposit on inside of arteries and veins

How plaque forms

Question Answer
1) high levels of LDL in blood due to excess sugar consumption
2)excess LDL deposits in thesmooth muscle of blood vessels
3)LDL oxidizes and forms toxic substance
4)white blood cells engulf the LDL
5)when white blood cells are fullthey die and burst and form a plaque. covered in connective tissue

health problems related to plaque

Question Answer
a) atherosclerosis (coronary artery disease)partial blockage. results in ANGINA = pain in neck, left arm and chest. treatment: 1)nitroglycerine spray dilates tubes. 2)stent - self expanding wire mesh that holds tube open
b) thrombusblood clot that forms when plaque bursts. very dangerous = stroke
c) heart attackcomplete blockage of coronaries
heart attack symptomsWOMEN=nausea, jaw pain, back pain MEN=chest pain, left arm pain, shortness of breath
d) arteriosclerosiswhen tubes outside coronary arteries are clogged
Perpherial vascular disease (arteriosclerosis)leg veins clogged (skin in feet fall off). leg artery clogged (toes go black and fall off)
Erectile Dysfunction ( arteriosclerosis)cant maintain an erection during sex, need VIAGRA
Hyper tension ( arteriosclerosis)high blood pressure (140/90) leads to kidney failure, heart attack, blindness, diabetes, stroke (due to blood clot in brain)

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