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The Cell Ch. 2

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bandrews212's version from 2017-06-09 21:18

Section

Question Answer
Plasma MembraneSeparates the cell's internal environment from its external environment
CytoplasmCytosol (intracellular fluid) and all the organelles embedded in ti
NucleusHouses DNA and is the control center of the cell
Phospholipid BilayerHead loves water, tail hates water
Selectively PermeableOnly certain substances may pass though. Small, lipid soluble, uncharged particles and oxygen may pass through. Large, polar, charged particles cannot pass through
Proteins of the Plasma MembraneIntegral, Transmembrane, and peripheral proteins
Integral ProteinsExtend into the membrane. Glycoproteins
Transmembrane ProteinsSpan the width of the membrane
Peripheral ProteinsOn the surface of the membrane
How do molecules that cannot go through the membrane enter the cell?Transmembrane proteins allow small to medium sized charged substance, and large polar molecules to enter
DiffusionMovement from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Requires a concentration gradient. Influence by temperature, diffusion distance, and surface area
Simple diffusionNonpolar and small, unchanged polar molecules utilize this mechanism.
Facilitated DiffusionDiffusion with the help of a transport protein.
OsmosisThe net diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane. Water moves form an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
TonicityConcentration of solutes in two fluids
IsotonicNo net movement of water. Solute IN=Solute OUT
HypertonicMovement of water out of cell. Solute IN
HypotonicMovement of water into the cell. Solute IN>Solute OUT
Active TransportUtilizes ATP to pump a substance across the membrane against its concentration gradient.
CytoskeletonMicrofilaments: Shape, microvilli. Intermediate filaments: Reinforcement. Microtubule: Cell Division.
CiliaHair like structures. Brushing motion. Location: Airways and certain ducts
FlagellaLong tail like structures. Whip-like movement for locomotion.
CentrosomeConsists of two components: two cenrtioles and pericentriolar material. Centrioles lie at right angles to one another. The pericentriolar material is the site of mitotic spindle information
RibosomeComposed of RNA. Assemble amino acids into proteins. Free-floating ribosomes: produce proteins for immediate use. Membrane-bound ribosome: Produce proteins for secretion.
Rough Endoplasmic ReticulumStudded with ribosomes. Main site of protein synthesis. Proteins made in ribosomes; modified by ER
Smooth Endoplasmi ReticulumMain site of fatty acid and steroid synthesis; including membrane lipids. Involved in detoxification.
Golgi Apparatus"Post Office" of the cell. Stacked and flattened membranous sacs called cisternae. Modifies and packages proteins
PeroxisomesContain oxidative enzymes. Involoved in metabolism of amino acids and fatty acids, and detoxification. Contain catalase to breakdown hydrogen peroxide produced during reactions.
LysosomesCytoplasmic vesicles. Autolysis, uncontrolled cell death. Contains digestive enzymes used for destroying bacteria and large objects.
Mitochondria"Powerhouse" of the cell. Site of ATP synthesis. Double membrane.
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