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The Cell Ch. 2 Cont.

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bandrews212's version from 2017-06-10 20:30

Section

Question Answer
NucleusHouses the DNA. The nuclear membrane has a double layer. Nuclear pores are holes in the nuclear membrane and allow passage of RNA, but no DNA.
Contents of the NucleusDNA strand wraps around a histone to form a nucleosome. Chromatin is formed when the nucleosomes link together. Chromosomes are condensed chromatin.
ChromosomeTwo sister chromatids connect at the centromere. Also used to denote the separated chromatids after anaphase
Sister chromatidPair of replicated strands of DNA
CentromereRegion where sister chromatids are connected.
KinetochoreProtein on the centromere that is the site of mitotic spindle attachement
MitosisDivision of the nucleus in four phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
ProphaseDNA condenses to form chromosomes. Nuclear membrane breaks down. Mitotic spindle forms from the pericentriolar material. This protein spidnle will attach to the chromosomes via the kinetochore on the cnteromere.
MetaphaseChromosomes attach to the mitotic spine and line up on the metaphase plate. Ensures that the chromosomes will be evenly and properly divided amongst the two daughter cells
AnaphaseSister chromatids are separated
TelophaseNuclear membrane reforms. Chromosomes unwind back into chromatin
CytokinesisDivision of cytoplasm. Begins towards the end of mitosis in telophase. Cleavage furrow forms. Actin filaments form a contractile ring. Pinches the cell in half. Always perpendicular to the mitotic spindle
MeiosisDivision of the cell that results in 4 haploid daughter cells.
HaploidHaving only 23 chromosomes
Meiosis ICutting genetic material in half. Homologous chromosomes form a tetrad via synapsis, crossing over occurs, and homologues are separated.
Meiosis IIDividing the chromosomes evenly. Sister chromatids are separated.
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