The basics of social research, earl babbie

nuzakomo's version from 2018-02-22 06:20


Question Answer
Ontology The metaphysical study of the nature of being and existence
EpistemologyThe philosophical theory of knowledge
ParadigmA model or frame work for observation and understanding, which shapes both what we see and how we understand it.
Hypothesisa tentative theory about the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena
independent variableA variable with values that are not problematic in an analysis but are taken as a simple given.
dependent variableA variable assumed to depend on or be caused by another (independent variable) variable.
AttributeA characteristic of a person or a thing
inductionThe logical model in which genereal principles are developmed from specific observation.
deductionThe logical model in which specific expectations of hypotheses are developed on a basis of general principles.
idiographicAn approach to explanation in which we seek to exhaust the idiosyncratic causes of a particular condition or event. Micro level-individual decisions
NomotheticAn approach to explanation in which we seek to identify a few casual factors that generally impact a class of conditions or events. Macro level-Group decisions
TheoryA systematic explanation for the observations that relate to a particular aspect of life.
Qualitative analysisThe nonnumerical examination and interpretation of observations, for the purpose of discovering underlying meanings and patterns relationships.
Quantitative analysisThe numerical representation and manipulation of observations for the purpose of describing and explaining the phenomena that those observations reflect.
macrotheoryA theory that aimed at understanding the "big picture" of institutions, whole societies, and the interactions among those societies.
MicrotheoryA theory aimed at understanding social life at the level of individuals and their interactions.
conceptualizationThe mental process whereby fuzzy and imprecise notions (concepts) are made more specific and precise. exp further defining what prejudice means.
idicatorsAn observation we choose to consider as a reflection of a variable we wish to study. exp attending church my be a considered an indicator of religiosity.
dimensionsA specifiable aspect of a concept
CorrelationAn empirical relationship between two variables such that a) changes in one are associated with the other or b) particular attributes of one variable are associated with particular attributes of the other.
spurious relationshipA coincidental statistical correlation between two variable, shown to be cause by some third variable. exp rape and sells of ice cream, third varible is windows open in summer.
methodologythe science of finding
nomothetic causalitya statisticle correlation between the two variables in which the cause takes place before the effect, no third party.
necessary causea condition that must be present for the effect to follow. exp necessary to take college clases to get a college degree
sufficient causeA condition that if present, garantees the effect in question. exp skipping exam is sufficient cause for failing exam
Exploration purposes1) to satisfy the researchers curiosity and desire for better understanding 2) to test the feasibility of undertaking a more extensive study 3) to develope the methods to be employed in any subsequent study.
necessary and sufficient causea necessary cause represents a condition that must be present for the effect to follow
non-spuriousthe third requirment for a causal relationship is that the effect cannot be explained in terms of some third variable.
time orderCan only say causal relationships exist if the the cause precedes the effect in time.