The American West - The Development of the Plains - Establishing Law and Order

weasel1222's version from 2015-05-17 22:23

Why lawless?

Question Answer
Why lawless?
How did the size of the 'West' lead to lawlessness?Law enforcement men such as sheriffs could not move around quickly
Which types of towns grew too rapidly to allow enough law enforcers to be in place?Cow towns and mining towns
Why did white settlers fight with each other?Different people with different occupations were on the same land e.g. Homesteaders and Ranchers
Why was their racial tension in the west?Different groups settled e.g. Mexicans, ex-slaves, Chinese & Europeans & they thought there would not be enough land or jobs to go round
What was the problem once the civil war was over?Ex-soldiers roamed the West, unable to settle into civilian life
Who did people in the west think should be responsible for sorting out their problems?Individuals themselves
How were most quarrels settled in the west?Shootings

Types of Crime

Question Answer
Types of Crime
Bank RobberyEx-confederate soldiers had no job to return to after the civil war and some turned to bank robbery, such as Jesse James
Cattle RustlingThe great number of cattle roaming the Great Plains were easy targets for cattle rustlers, and brands could often be adapted by rustlers
Claim-JumpingLate arrivals on the gold fields often tried to steal land from those who had already claimed it
Fence CuttingFence cutting was a common crime in the 1880s and 1890s, where homesteaders would cut the barbed-wire fences put up by larger ranches, that stopped them from getting to the waterholes and streams
Horse StealingHorses were extremely valuable, and were essential in a cowboys, ranchers, homesteaders and Indian's life - Horse thieves were often hanged
MurderShootings were common and some men became famous gangsters
Racial AttacksRacial attacks were common, as Blacks, Indians, Mexicans and (most frequently) Chinese were all targets. Chinese emigration was encouraged to build the railroads, and people were afraid they would take all the jobs
Trail RobberyAll individual travellers , stagecoaches and wagons were at risk of being held up and robbed - Robbers waited until they were well out of town, and so no help was available
Train RobberyTrains with coaches carrying gold and cash were easy targets for robbers and gangs, and was easy to rob with no interference from the forces of law and order

Gun Fights

Question Answer
Gun Fights
Where were most shoot-outs?In cow towns in the Midwest
Who often started the shoot outs?Trigger-happy cowboys
Were there regulations for guns?Yes, there were laws against carrying guns in all cow towns
How many died from gunshot wounds between 1870 and 1885?Only 39 men
What was banned from Abilene in 1872?Cowboys were banned from going into Abilene

Law Breakers

Question Answer
Law Breakers
What two things was Belle Starr famous for stealing?Cattle and horses
What did Belle Starr become the first woman to be charged with?She was the first woman to be charged with horse theft, and served a five year prison sentence
How old was Belle Starr when she died, and how was she killed?She was shot in the back at the age of 41
When did Billy the Kid's life of crime begin?When he was sixteen
Why was Billy the Kid arrested in 1877?He killed Frank Cahill
Which gang did Billy the Kid join?The Regulators
Who's murder was Billy the Kid arrested for?Sheriff Brady
What did he do after escaping custody?He formed a gang that specialised in cattle stealing
How was Billy the Kid killed on 14th July 1881?In a shootout with Pat Garrett, the Sheriff of Lincoln County
What crimes did the gang Jesse James formed with his brother Frank specialise in?Robbing banks, trains and stage-coaches
What did James' gang try and rob in 1881?The First National Bank in Minnesota, and Jesse James killed the bank cashier - The townspeople fought back, and killed three of Jesse's men, and wounded all the others
What did Jesse James do after he had escaped from the bank?He went into hiding, changed his name to J D Howard and formed a new gang in Missouri
How much was the reward offered for the capture of Jesse James?$10000
Who shot Jesse?Robert Ford, a member of Jesse's gang

Enforcing Law and Order

Question Answer
Enforcing Law and Order
What were most of the lands west of the Mississippi river?Federal Lands
What were Federal lands?Land that were not states, but had their own governor and assembly
What did US Marshals do?The US marshals were appointed by the president to be responsible for a state or territory
What did Deputy Marshals do?These were appointed to specific towns and counties in the Federal territories
What did Town Marshals do?These were appointed on a yearly basis by the townspeople, and their job was to deal with local outbreaks of lawlessness - The Town Marshals could appoint deputies
What did Sheriffs do?These were appointed in the counties for two years, and could force local people to form a posse to chase local lawbreakers - Sheriffs could appoint deputies
Who was appointed by the President to try cases?Federal judges (three to a territory)
Why did accused people often have to wait for months for justice?Federal judges had to travel round the territory that they were appointed to
What did local people often do, rather than waiting for Federal judges?They took matters into their own hands, and lynched people they believed to be guilty
What was a vigilante?Someone who took the law into his own hands
How many vigilante groups were there west of the Mississippi?200

Law Makers

Question Answer
Law Makers
What was William Tilghman's reputation?An honest & intelligent law man
Where did Tilghman first become a lawman?Dodge City
How many men did Tilghman kill in shoot outs?2
So how did he catch the law breakers?Disguises & entrapment
Where was he credited with wiping out organised crime?Oklahoma
Which gangs is he credited with capturing?The Doolins, Daltons & Starr Gangs
Give 2 reasons why Wyatt Earp is sacked as a law manHorse theft & fighting a fellow officer
In which city was Earp a Deputy Marshall & Assistant City Marshall?In Dodge City
Where does he become a lawman with his brothers?In Tombstone
Where does he have a shoot out with 2 families & win?The OK Corral
How does he make a living when he flees to Los Angeles?Petty theft

Johnson County War

Question Answer
The Johnson County War
Who fought whom in Johnson County in Wyoming in 1892?The cattlemen and the homesteaders
Who settled in Johnson County first, the homesteaders or the cattlemen?The cattlemen
What did the cattlemen set up in Johnson County?Wyoming Stock Growers Association
What did homesteaders begin to do after the disastrous years for ranchers?They began to take over land from bankrupt ranchers
What triggered the violence between the cattlemen and the homesteaders?Cattle rustling
Who was rustling cattle?The Wyoming Stock Growers Association believed that the homesteaders and owners of small ranches were rustling cattle from their members
How did Ella Watson a prostitute become involved?Some of her clients paid her with cattle that had been rustled, and a rancher called Albert Bothwell suspected Ella and Jim Averill of rustling his cattle
What did Albert Bothwell do to Ella Watson and Jim Averill in July 1889?He hanged them
What did the Wyoming Stock Growers Association do in 1892?It drew up a hit list of 70 people it suspected of cattle rustling, and planned a full scale invasion of Johnson County
How many gunmen did the WSGA hire?22, and paid them $5 a day, plus $50 for each rustler they killed
How did the invasion begin?The invaders cut the telegraph wires, isolating Johnson County from the outside world
Who led the invasion force in April 1892?Major Frank Wolcott
What happened at the KC ranch?The invaders were held off all day by Nate Champion, after Nick Ray was killed
What did Red Angus, the Sheriff of Johnson County do when he heard?He raised a force of 300 men and went after Wolcott's invaders
Who won the battle?No one, the cattle ranchers were never convicted, and the homesteaders continued to farm and enclosed their ranges