What did starving Cheyenne Indians do on the Sand Creek reservation in Colorado?
They began attacking the wagon trains, taking the food, but leaving the travellers unharmed
After three years of raids, where did Black Kettle try to settle down?
He set up camp in Sand Creek, believing he was under army protection
What was Colonel Chivington responsible for?
Protecting settlers and dealing with the Indians
When did Chivington raid Black Kettle's camp, and how many Indians did he massacre?
29th November 1864, and he killed 450 men, women and children
What did Black Kettle do after the massacre?
He escaped, and spread the news to other tribes, who increased their attacks on white people
What happened in October 1865?
US government representatives met with Indian representatives at Bluff Creek, and in return for the Cheyenne giving up their land claims and stopping violence, they were promised money and land in Oklahoma
The discovery of gold in Montana, which led to John Bozeman setting up the Bozeman trail
What was the problem with the Bozeman trail?
It ran through the Sioux's hunting grounds, which broke the Fort Laramie Treaty (1851)
What did Red Cloud and the Indians do when people used the Bozeman trail?
Red Cloud (the chief of the Lakota Sioux) began attacking travellers
In 1866, the government set up talks with Red Cloud, but what did he realise at the last moment?
He discovered that the army was planning on setting up at least two more forts along the Bozeman trail to protect travellers
The Indians kept attacking travellers on the Bozeman Trail, and which two other leaders joined Red Cloud?
Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
What happened in December 1866?
Captain William Fetterman and a group of eighty soldiers left Fort Kearney to provide protection for a wagon train, and were wiped out by the Sioux
What did the Indians do to Fort Kearney?
They surrounded it in a ring with armed warriors, so the US army could not move outside the fort, and no traveller could use the Bozeman trail
Why was Red Cloud so successful?
He kept together several Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes, and kept them fighting in the Winter, forcing the US on the defensive
How was the stalemate resolved in 1867?
The government set up a peace commission, which agreed that the peace treaties with the Indians had not worked, and so they decided that the only way to solve the problem of the differences between the Indians and the white people, was to split the Indian tribes and to put them in small, separate reservations
What were the terms of the second Fort Laramie Treaty?
The US government agreed to abandon three forts and the Bozeman trail, and Red Cloud agreed to take his people to a reservation in Dakota, stretching from the Black Hills of Dakota to the Missouri River
in 1868, the government extended its small reservation policy to where?
The Rocky Mountain area
Where did the tribes in the Rocky Mountain area agree to go?
To small reservations throughout Colorado, Idaho, Wyoming, Arizona and New Mexico
Why could many Indians not settle in the small reservations?
They were used to a nomadic lifestyle, and this meant that it was over