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The American West - Conflict on the Plains - Conflict Between Indians and Settlers, the Indian Wars

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weasel1222's version from 2015-05-17 22:27

Fort Laramie Treaty

Question Answer
Fort Laramie Treaty
1851The Fort Laramie Treaty, giving the Cheyenne and Arapho Indians land along the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, in return for them to stop attacking wagons along the Oregon Trail
How much did the government promise to give the Indians and for how long?$50,000 a year, for ten years
Because the Americans had broken the Fort Laramie treaty, what did the Indians do?They attacked railroad surveyors and travellers
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Little Crow's War

Question Answer
Little Crow's War
When was Little Crow's War?1862
What failed in 1861, made worse by the fact that compensation that the Santee had been promised had not arrived from Washington?The crops failed
How many Santee faced starvation?12,000
In August 1862, what did Little Crow do?Little Crow took the Santee warriors and attacked the Agency (the organisation set up to run the reservation)
What did the Santee take from the Agency?All the food and provisions, and distributed them amongst their starving tribes-people
What did the Santee then do to the Agency?They burned it to the ground
Who did the Santee then attack?45 US army soldiers that had come to deal with the incident (nearly half were killed)
By October 1862, what had happened to the Santee?They had all been captured or surrendered; they were then moved to a smaller reservation (Crow Creek in Minnesota)
What was wrong with Crow Creek?The land was barren, the water was unfit for drinking and food was scarce
Why was Sitting Bull's attitude towards the US government and the settlers changed?Because several hundred Santee died in the first winter, and the conditions were appaling
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Sand Creek Massacre

Question Answer
Sand Creek Massacre
When did the Sand Creek Massacre take place?In 1864
What did starving Cheyenne Indians do on the Sand Creek reservation in Colorado?They began attacking the wagon trains, taking the food, but leaving the travellers unharmed
After three years of raids, where did Black Kettle try to settle down?He set up camp in Sand Creek, believing he was under army protection
What was Colonel Chivington responsible for?Protecting settlers and dealing with the Indians
When did Chivington raid Black Kettle's camp, and how many Indians did he massacre?29th November 1864, and he killed 450 men, women and children
What did Black Kettle do after the massacre?He escaped, and spread the news to other tribes, who increased their attacks on white people
What happened in October 1865?US government representatives met with Indian representatives at Bluff Creek, and in return for the Cheyenne giving up their land claims and stopping violence, they were promised money and land in Oklahoma
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Red Cloud's War

Question Answer
Red Cloud's War
What gave the government huge problems ?The discovery of gold in Montana, which led to John Bozeman setting up the Bozeman trail
What was the problem with the Bozeman trail?It ran through the Sioux's hunting grounds, which broke the Fort Laramie Treaty (1851)
What did Red Cloud and the Indians do when people used the Bozeman trail?Red Cloud (the chief of the Lakota Sioux) began attacking travellers
In 1866, the government set up talks with Red Cloud, but what did he realise at the last moment?He discovered that the army was planning on setting up at least two more forts along the Bozeman trail to protect travellers
The Indians kept attacking travellers on the Bozeman Trail, and which two other leaders joined Red Cloud?Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
What happened in December 1866?Captain William Fetterman and a group of eighty soldiers left Fort Kearney to provide protection for a wagon train, and were wiped out by the Sioux
What did the Indians do to Fort Kearney?They surrounded it in a ring with armed warriors, so the US army could not move outside the fort, and no traveller could use the Bozeman trail
Why was Red Cloud so successful?He kept together several Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes, and kept them fighting in the Winter, forcing the US on the defensive
How was the stalemate resolved in 1867?The government set up a peace commission, which agreed that the peace treaties with the Indians had not worked, and so they decided that the only way to solve the problem of the differences between the Indians and the white people, was to split the Indian tribes and to put them in small, separate reservations
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Second Fort Laramie Treaty

Question Answer
Second Fort Laramie Treaty
When was the second Fort Laramie Treaty?1868
What were the terms of the second Fort Laramie Treaty?The US government agreed to abandon three forts and the Bozeman trail, and Red Cloud agreed to take his people to a reservation in Dakota, stretching from the Black Hills of Dakota to the Missouri River
in 1868, the government extended its small reservation policy to where?The Rocky Mountain area
Where did the tribes in the Rocky Mountain area agree to go?To small reservations throughout Colorado, Idaho, Wyoming, Arizona and New Mexico
Why could many Indians not settle in the small reservations?They were used to a nomadic lifestyle, and this meant that it was over
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Great Sioux War

Question Answer
Great Sioux War
When was the Great Sioux war?1876-1877
Where did the final battle between the whites and the Indians take place?It began in the Black Hills of Dakota, a sacred place for Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians
Where was the Northern Pacific Railroad fast approaching?The Sioux hunting grounds in Dakota
In 1874, why did General George Custer lead an expedition from Fort Abraham Lincoln?To protect the railroad builders from Indian attacks
What was the other reason for Custer being in Dakota?He was there to look for gold, and he found it
After Custer found gold in Dakota, thousands of prospectors were swarming over the Black Hills, which went against the 1868 Fort Laramie treaty, so what did the government try to buy?The Black Hills from the Sioux, for $6million - The Indians refused
What did the government order in 1875?They ordered the Sioux to return to their reservation in December (they were given 60 days to obey), if they didn't they would be seen as hostile
What made it impossible for the Indians to obey President Grant's order to return to the reservations?The deep snows and poor winter weather
How many Indians had erected 1,000 lodges on lands between the Powder River and the Rosebud River by Springtime?7,000 Indians (Around 2,000 were warriors)
What did Sitting Bull have a vision of?A vision of white men falling into the Sioux Camp, which was interpreted as meaning that the Sioux would have a great victory
Where did Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse lead the Indians after wiping out an army camp by Rosebud River?West towards Greasy Grass River (as known by the Indians) or Little Big Horn (as the whites called it)
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Battle of Little Big Horn

Question Answer
Battle of Little Big Horn
When was the Battle of Little Bighorn?1876
The US army was not discouraged by Sitting Bull's defeat of General Cook at Rosebud river, which took place when?17th June 1876
Alfred Terry's Indian scouts told him where the Indians were camped, and so who did he order to take a column of infantry eastwards along fort Ellis along the valley of the Yellowstone river?Colonel John Gibbon
What was General Custer ordered to do with the faster 7th Cavalry?He was ordered to follow the Indian's trail, locate their camp precisely and to attack it from the South in a combined effort with Gibbon's infantry
When did Custer spot the Indian's camp?25th June 1876 - It was the biggest camp ever seen on the Plains
Why should Custer not have attacked the Indian camp on his own?He was warned that he did not have enough bullets to kill all of the Indians
How many men and officers did Custer have?600 men and two officers, Marcus Reno and Captain Frederick Benteen
Benteen took three companies West; Reno took three companies South, and how many companies did Custer take North?Five companies
Why did things immediately go wrong?Reno was stopped by Lakota warriors, and Benteen helped him and regrouped his men, but they were holding a hilltop (trapped by hundreds of Indians)
Custer and his men were engaged in a fight to the death, after being met by what?1500 Indian warriors on horseback
Custer and his men retreated to try and reach higher ground, but then what happened?1000 Oglaga Sioux and Cheyenne warriors (and Crazy Horse) killed all of Custer's men
What did the Indians do after the battle had finished?On 26th June, the Indians withdrew, took down their tipis, set fire to the prairie and headed for the Big Horn mountain
When did Terry and his men arrive and find the horrific battle scene?27th June
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