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Question Answer
Superstitious belief and practicesEarly Filipinos subscribed to _____________ in relation to health and sickness.
Another person or Evil spirits.Early beliefs said that cause of disease was caused by ________ or ____________
MangkukulamPerson suffering from diseases without identified cause were believed bewitched by ___________
NonosDifficult childbirth were attributed to ______
Persons with powers to expel demonsEvil spirits could be driven away by _________________
Priest physician & Albolarios2 people with belief in special Gods of healing
(1) Hospital Real de Manila, (2) San Juan de Dios Hospital, (3) San Lazaro Hospital, (4) Hospital de Aguas Santas, (5) Hospital de IndiosReligious orders exerted efforts to care for the sick by building hospitals in different parts of the Philippines:
Josephine Brackenwife of Jose Rizal installed a field hospital in an estate in Tejeros that provided nursing care to the wounded night and day.
Rose Sevilla de Alvaroconverted their house into quarters for Filipino soldiers during the Phil-American War in 1899
Hilaria de Aguinaldowife of Emilio Aguinaldo organized the Filipino Red Cross
Melchora Aquinonursed the wounded Filipino soldiers, gave them shelter and food
Melchora AquinoTandang Sora
Captain Salomea revolutionary leader in Nueva Ecija provided nursing care to the wounded when not in combat.
Agueda Kahabaganrevolutionary leader in Laguna also provided nursing services to her troop
Trinidad Tecsonstayed in the hospital at Biac na Bato to care for the wounded soldiers.
Trinidad TecsonIna ng Biak na Bato
1900Year when St. Paul's Hospital School of Nursing in Intramuros Manila was established
1906Year when Iloilo Mission Hospital Training School of Nursing was established
1909distinction of graduating the 1st trained nurses in the Philippines. With no standard requirements for admission of applicants except their "willingness to work"
Willingness to workIn 1909, there were no standard requirements for admission of applicants except this
April 1946Year when a board exam was held outside of Manila
Iloilo Mission HospitalPlace where board exam was held outside Manila
Loreto TupasPrincipal of Iloilo Mission Hospital
1907Year when St. Luke's hospital School of Nursing opened as a dispensary clinic
1907Year Mary Johnston Hospital School of Nursing
1910Year Philippine General Hospital school of Nursing
1930Year Manila Sanitarium and Hospital
UST College of Nursing1st College of nursing in the PH
1946Year when UST College of Nursing opened
MCU College of Nursing1st College who offered BSN 4 yr program
1947Year MCU College of Nursing
June 1948Year UP College of Nursing
June 1955Year FEU Institute of Nursing
Oct 1958UE College of Nursing
(1) Educ prep, atleast completion of 7th grade, (2) Sound Physical & Mental functions, (3) Good moral character, (4) Good family & social standing, (5) Recommendations from 3 diff persons well known in community5 criteria of admission to nursing school
1909Year when 3 female graduated as "qualified medical-surgical nurses"
1919Year when the 1st Nurse Law was enacted regulating the practice of nursing profession on in PH
2nd monday of June & December each yearDate when exam is held for nursing practice
Act #2808The first nurses law
19201st board examination for nurses was conducted by Board Examiners
Anna Dahlgen, 93.5%Person who got highest score in board exam on 1920 and score
68/93Ratio of those who passed and those who took board exam in 1920
UP Ampitheater of Colllege of Medicine and SurgeryWhere theoretical exam was held
PGH LibraryWhere Practical Exam was held
1921Formation of PNA/FNA
Filipino Nurses Associationestablished as the Natl Org of Filipino Nurses
Rosario Montemayor Delgado1st PNA President
Anastacia Giron-TupasFounder of PNA
1953Year when Republic Act 877, Nursing Practice Law, was approved
Cesaria TanFirst Filipino nurse who had a master degree
Sicorro Sirilanreformed social service for indigenous patient at San Lazaro Hospital
Magdalena Valenzuelafirst Filipino industrial nurse
Annies SandFounded the national League of Philippine government nurse
Coronel Elvegia Mendozafirst female military nurse
Loreto TupazKnow of Dean of Philippine education
Loreto TupazFlorence Nightingale of Iloilo
Socorro Diazfirst editor of Message
Conchita Ruizfirst editor of the "e filipino nurses" the second journal of the PNA
Dr. Julita SotejoFlorence Nightingale of the Philippines
Anastacia Giron Tupasfirst Filipino with title of Nursing Superintendent chief nurse at PGH
Rosario Montemayor Delgadograduate of PGH in 1912
Dr. Diosscorides SalminCommitted dedicated SDA nurse leader


Question Answer
1930Offered a 3 yr diploma program
1930-1942 & 1949-1950Operated by manila Sanitarium and Hospital
1949Govt recognition was given to PUC to offer the Post basic course in nursing leading to the degree of BSN in Nursing Education
1957Full govt recognition to offer BSN
1963Supplemental program replaced the post basic course
1967Full transfer of administration of the School of Nursing from the hospital (MSH) to PUC. 5 yrs curriculum and 6 yrs curriculum

LESSON 5 pt 1


Question Answer
Writings of Florence NightingaleHistory of Nursing Theory Development started here
(1) Notes on Nursing, (2) What is it and what it is notFlorence Nightingale's writings\
1950s gov't recognize the need to prepare nurses at graduate level for administrative position
Columbia University Teacher's CollegeDeveloped education program to meet the need
Mid 50sInterpersonal Relation in Nursing (year)
Mid 50sNursing Research Journal (year)
1960sTheoretical thinking shifted on the relationship between the nurse and the patient
1960sYale University (year)
1970sHeyday of theory development
NLNSelect, Develop, Implement a conceptual framework for curriculum in nursing school as standard for accreditation (Application of theory to nursing theory)
1978First edition of Advances in nursing Sciences was published
1980Revision of existing theories
1990further testing & expanding of the existing theories
Mold nurses to provide theory driven practice towards (1) excellent, (2) individualized, (3) quality, (4) ethical & (5) humane patient careAim of nursing theory
Theorysystematic organized perspectives serve as a guide for nursing action in administration, education, research and practice
TheoryA set of statements that tentatively describe explain or predict relationships among concepts that have been systematically selected and organized as an abstract representation of some phenomenon
(1) Interrelating concepts, (2) Logical in nature, (3) Generalizable, (4) can be Tested, (5) Increase of knowledge, (6) Guide practitioner and improve practice, (7) Consistent with validated theoriesTheory is .....
Conceptmental formulation of an object or event that comes from individual perceptual experience, an idea, a mental image, words that describe objects, properties or events
ConceptFormulated in words to enable people to communicate and give meaning to event or phenomena
Concrete concept & Abstract concept2 kinds of concept
Concrete ConceptExample of this concept: iPod, body temp, height age
Abstract ConceptExample of this concept: Hope, love desire
ConstructA group of words forming a phrase
ConstructComplex type of concept, comprised of more than one concept
ConstructA phenomena that cannot be observed and must be inferred
DefinitionGeneral meaning of the concept that fits the theory
DefinitionNecessary to measure construct, relationships or variables within the theory
ModelRepresentations of interaction among and between concepts showing patterns
ModelAs an abstraction of reality, provides a way to visualize reality to simplify thinking
Phenomenadesignation of an aspect of reality that can be consciously sensed or experienced; event; happening; occurrence; incidence; experience
Philosophya statement of beliefs and values about human beings and their world
Philosophya study of problems that are ultimate, abstract & general
PhilosophyThese problems are concerned with the nature of existence, knowledge and morality, reason and human purpose
Nursing Theoryan articulated & communicated conceptualization of invented and discovered reality in or pertaining to nursing for the purpose of describing, explaining , predicting or prescribing nursing care (Meleis, 1994)
Nursing TheoryA way of looking at a discipline in clear explicit terms that can be communicated to others
Nursing TheoryA set of concepts, definitions, relationships, and assumptions or propositions derived from nursing models or from other disciplines and project a purposive systematic view of phenomena
Nursing TheoryDesigning specific inter-relationships among concepts for the purposes of describing, explaining, predicting and/or prescribing

LESSON 5 pt 2

Question Answer
(1) Nursing theory is relevant to present and future practice & (2) Students are not expected to become nurse theorists or experts2 things on what you need to know about learning theory
(1) Aim to predict & explain phenomena, (2) Provide foundations and generate further knowledge, (3) To decide what they know & need to know, (4) Distinguish the form of basis of practice 4 Importance of Nursing Theories
(1) Better patient care, (2) Enhanced professional status for nurses, (3) Improved communication, (4 Guidance for RS and Educ4 The benefits of having defined body of theory in nursing
Analyze and explain what nurses doMain exponent of nursing caring
Nursing continues to strive to establish a unique body of knowledgeAs medicine tries to make a move towards adopting a more multidisciplinary approach to health care, ____________
(1) Provide direction & guidance, (2) Education, (3) Research, (4) Nursing Practice, (5) Help establish criteria, (6) Help build a common nursing terminology, (7) Enhance independence & self governancePurposes of Theory
(1) Based on Function, (2) Based on the generalizability of their principle, (3) Based on principles of the Discipline, (4) Based on Philosophical underpinning of theoriesClassifications of Nursing Theory
(1) Descriptive, (2) Explanatory, (4) Predictive, (5) Prescriptive4 Types of Theory Based on Function
Descriptivedescribe phenomena, speculates why phenomena occur and describe consequences
ExplanatoryTo examine how properties relate & thus affect discipline; Relationship of ___ & _____
PredictiveTo calculate relationships and how they occur; Cause & Effect
PrescriptiveAddress nursing interventions and predict the consequence of a specific nursing intervention. Action oriented
PrescriptiveExample is Mishel's Theory of Uncertainty
(1) Meta theory & (2) Grand theory2 types of Theory Based on generalizability of their principle
Meta-theoryis a theory about a theory; most abstract & not easily tested
Grand theorytheory that is broad in scope and complex and require specification through research before they can be fully tested
Grand theoryAny theory which attempts an overall explanation of social life, history or human experience
(1) Middle range Theory & (2) Practice Theory2 types of Theory Based on principles of the Discipline
Middle rangeTheory is more precise and only analyze a particular situation
Practice TheoryTheory that explores one particular situation found in nursing
Practice TheoryTheory that identifies explicit goals and details on how these goals will be achieved
(1) Needs theories, (2) Interaction Theories, (3) Outcome Theories, (4) Humanistic Theories4 types of Theory Based on Philosophical underpinning of theories
Needs theoriesBased around helping individuals to fulfill their physical and mental needs
Interaction TheoriesTheories that revolve around the relationship nurses form with patients
Outcome TheoriesPortray the nurse as the changing force, who enables individuals to cope with ill health
Outcome TheoriesIdentified as abstract & difficult to implement in practice
Changing forceIn outcome theories, it portray nurses as ________________
Humanistic TheoriesThey developed in response to the psychoanalytic thought that a person's destiny was determined in early life
Humanistic TheoriesEmphasize a person's capacity for self actualization
Humanistic TheoriesThe person contains within himself the potential for healthy & creative growth
(1) Person, (2) Environment, (3) Health, (4) Nursing4 Common Concepts in Nursing Theories
PersonThe recipient of nursing care
PersonIncludes physical, spiritual, Psychological & Sociocultural elements
PersonIncludes individual, family, community & groups
EnvironmentAll internal & external conditions, circumstances and influences affecting the person
EnvironmentAll possible conditions affecting the client and the settling in which health care needs occur
HealthThe degree of wellness or well being that the client experiences
NursingThe attributes, characteristics and the action of the nurse providing care on behalf of, or on conjunction with the client
(1)To further nursing as a scholarly profession & (2) To organize and improve the delivery of nursing care2 reasons why Theorist created Theories

LESSON 5 pt 3

Question Answer
Provide Direction & GuidanceStructuring professional nursing practice, education & RS
Provide Direction & GuidanceDifferentiating the focus of nursing from other profession
EducationProvide general focus for curriculum design
EducationGuide curricular decision making
ResearchOffer a framework for generating knowledge and new ideas
ResearchAssist in discovering knowledge gaps in the specific field of study
ResearchOffer systematic approach to identify questions for study, select variables, interpret findings and validate nursing interventions
Nursing practiceAssist nurses to describe, explain and predict everyday experiences
Nursing practiceServe to guide assessment, intervention and evaluation of nursing care
Nursing practiceProvide a rationale for collecting reliable and valid data about the health status of clients which are essential for effective decision making and implementation
Establish CriteriaTo measure quality of nursing
Build common nursing terminologyTo use in communicating with other health professionals. Ideas are developed and words are defined
Enhance Autonomy (independence / self governance)it is through defining its own independent functions
(1) Interrelate concepts, (2) Logical, (3) Generalizable, (4) Can be tested, (5) Contribute to knowledge, (6) Guide & improve practice, (7) ConsistentCharacteristics of Theory