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TFN Pre Finals 4

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baejuhyeoned's version from 2018-11-15 20:59

Madeleine Leininger

Question Answer
The Culture Care Diversity and Universality theoryfocuses on describing, explaining and predicting nursing similarities and differences focused primarily on human care and caring in human cultures.
Transcultural nursingit focuses upon the comparative study and analysis of cultures with respect to nursing and health-illness caring practices, beliefs and values
Careconcrete phenomena with expressions of assistive, supportive, enabling and facilitating ways toward or about self or others
Culture Careis learned and transmitted values, beliefs, and patterned lifeways to maintain the well-being, health, and improve human condition
Culture Congruent CareCare that fits the people's valued life patterns and set of meanings -which is generated from the people themselves.
Diversitydifferences in meanings, patterns, values, lifeways, or symbols of care within or between collectives that are related to assistive, supportive, or enabling human care expressions.
Universalityindicates the common or similar pattern, values, lifeways or symbols that are manifest among many cultures . 
Cultural and Social Structure Dimensiondynamic patterns and features of interrelated structural and organizational factors of a particular culture.
Worldviewis the way in which people look at the world, or at the universe, and form a “picture or value stance” about the world and their lives.
Caringrefers to actions, attitudes or practices to assist others toward healing and well-being.
(1) Generic Care& (2) Professional Care2 types of caring
Generic Careis the basic expression of human caring includes home remedies and folk care
Generic CareHas emic
Professional CareHas etic
Professional Careis learned, practiced, and transmitted knowledge obtained through formal education
Ethnohistoryincludes sequences of past facts, events, instances of human being, groups, cultures, and institution over time which explain and interpret human lifeways within particular cultural context
EmicKnowledge gained from direct experience or directly from those who have experienced. It is generic or folk knowledge.
EticKnowledge which describes the professional perspective. It is professional care knowledge.
Emic & EticTwo types of knowledge in every culture
SUNRISE MODELname of leininger's model
(1) Culture care preservation/maintenance, (2) Culture care accommodation/negotiation, (3) Culture care repatterning/restructuring3 Modes to guide nursing in giving culturally congruent care
Culture care preservation/maintenancerefers to nursing care activities that help people of particular cultures to retain and use core cultural care values related to healthcare concerns and conditions
Culture care accommodation/negotiationrefers to creative nursing actions that help people of particular culture adapt to or negotiate with others
Culture care repatterning/restructuringrefers to therapeutic actions taken by culturally competent nurse or family. These action enable or assist a client to modify personal health behaviors towards benefic outcomes while respecting the client’s cultural values.
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PATRICIA BENNER

Question Answer
Novice, Advance Beginner, Competent, Proficient, ExpertFive levels of skill acquisition and development
NOVICEThe person has no background experience of the situation in which he or she is involve.
NOVICEThere is difficulty discerning between relevant and irrelevant aspects of the situation.
ADVANCE BEGINNERDemonstrating acceptable performance
ADVANCE BEGINNERNurses functioning at this level are guided by rules and oriented by task completion.
COMPETENTis the pivotal in clinical learning because the learner must begin to recognized patterns and determine which elements of the situation warrant attention and which can be ignored.
PROFICIENTis a qualitative leap beyond the competent.
PROFICIENTNurses at this level demonstrate a new ability to see changing relevance in a situation including the recognition and the implementation of skilled responses to the situation as is it evolves.
EXPERTno longer relies on an analytic principle (rule, guideline, maxim) to connect his or her understanding of the situation to an appropriate action.
EXPERToperates from a deep understanding of the total situation.
(1) Role of Situation, (2) Role of the body, (3) Role of personal concerns, (4) Role of TemporalityMajor aspects of understanding that the person must deal with
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NOLA PENDER

Question Answer
Health Promotion ModelName of Pender's theory
(1) Individual characteristics and experiences, (2) Behaviour-specific cognitions and affect, (3) Behavioural outcomes3 Major concepts of health promotion model
(1) Prior related behavior, (2) Personal Factors2 INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND EXPERIENCES
Prior related behaviorrefers to the frequency of the same or similar behavior in the past
Prior related behaviorhas direct and indirect effects on the likelihood of engaging in health promoting behaviors
Personal Factorsare categorized as biological, psychological, and sociocultural
Personal FactorsThese factors are predictive of a given behavior and are shaped by the nature of the target behavior being considered
(1) Biological, (2) Psychological, (3) Socio-cultural3 Personal Factors
(1) Commitment of Plan Action, (2) Immediate Competing Demands & Preferences, (3)Health Promoting behaviour 3 Behavioural Outcome
(1) Perceived benefit of action, (2) Perceived barriers to action, (3) Perceived Self Efficacy, (4) Activity related affect, (5) Interpersonal Influences, (6) Situational Influences6 Behavioural Specific Cognition and Affect
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Question Answer
PERSONAL BIOLOGICAL FACTORSInclude variable such as age gender body mass index pubertal status, aerobic capacity, strength, agility, or balance.
PERSONAL PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORSInclude variables such as self esteem self motivation personal competence perceived health status and definition of health.
PERSONAL SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTORSInclude variables such as race ethnicity, acculturation, education and socioeconomic status.
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Question Answer
PERCEIVED BENEFITS OF ACTIONAnticipated positive out comes that will occur from health behaviour.
PERCEIVED BARRIERS TO ACTIONAnticipated, imagined or real blocks and personal costs of understanding a given behaviour
PERCEIVED SELF EFFICACYJudgment of personal capability to organize and execute a health-promoting behaviour
ACTIVITY RELATED AFFECTSubjective positive or negative feeling that occur before, during and following behavior based on the stimulus properties of the behaviour itself.
ACTIVITY RELATED AFFECTinfluences perceived self efficacy, which means the more positive the subjective feeling, the greater the feeling of efficacy.
INTERPERSONAL INFLUENCESCognition concerning behaviours, beliefs, or attitudes of the others. Interpersonal influences include: norms (expectations of significant others), social support (instrumental and emotional encouragement) and modelling (vicarious learning through observing others engaged in a particular behaviour).
INTERPERSONAL INFLUENCESPrimary sources of interpersonal influences are families, peers, and healthcare providers.
SITUATIONAL INFLUENCESPersonal perceptions and cognition of any given situation or context that can facilitate or impede behaviour.
SITUATIONAL INFLUENCESInclude perceptions of options available, demand characteristics and aesthetic features of the environment in which given health promoting is proposed to take place.
SITUATIONAL INFLUENCESmay have direct or indirect influences on health behaviour.
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Question Answer
COMMITMENT TO PLAN OF ACTIONThe concept of intention and identification of a planned strategy leads to implementation of health behaviour.
IMMEDIATE COMPETING DEMANDS AND PREFERENCESCompeting demands are those alternative behaviour over which individuals have low control because there are environmental contingencies such as work or family care responsibilities. (such as choice of ice cream or apple for a snack)
HEALTH PROMOTING BEHAVIOUREndpoint or action outcome directed toward attaining positive health outcome such as optimal well-being, personal fulfillment, and productivity
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