1. French and British interests coincided in the Ohio River valley region 2. Colonial settlers moving west of the Appalachian Mountains encountered hostile Indians.
What was the principle crop in New France?
How did the British deal with the colonists' efforts to govern themselves?
They were going to see that the colonists would be brought under control by various Parliamentary measures such as: the Navigation Acts, the Sugar Act, the Currency act, and the Stamp act.
What was the Stamp Act Congress?
A meeting of colonial delegates in NYC. In that congress, these delegates will come up with a statement of rights and grievances. This congress will ask that the rest of the colonies will boycott British goods (nonimportation).
What was the Boston Massacre? What effect did it have on spreading the fire of independence among the colonists?
The Boston Massacre occurred when British soldiers, who had been goaded and mocked, fired into the crowd of hecklers killing a few Americans. The news of this incident spread quickly through print and engravings. Patriots used this incident to gain momentum and to enlist other colonists in the fight against British tyranny.
What was the Boston Tea Party, and how did the British react to it?
The Boston tea party occurred when a group of Americans met a shipment of British tea as it came into Boston Harbor. They threw the tea overboard in protest to the high tax on the tea and other imports. The British closed the port of Boston until the tea was repaid.
What was the legendary "shot that was heard around the world?"
the one at Lexington
Discuss the work of the Continental Congresses?
The first Continental congress met in Philadelphia in 1774 to consider redressing colonial grievances. The Congress created The Association which called for a complete boycott of British goods in order for Britain to listen to their grievances. If these grievances were not redressed, then the Congress would meet again in May of 1775. The Second Continental Congress met in May of 1775 after shots had been fired. In June they decided to adopt measures to raise money and to create an army and a navy. They also chose George Washington to be the commander of the Continental Army.
What qualities made George Washington a good choice as commander of the Continental Army?
What battles during the War for Independence were the most significant?
Brandywine Creek, Germantown, Saratoga
Describe the problems of unity facing the thirteen colonies during the War for Independence?
The colonies had no common “theme” until independence was declared. They were all self-reliant and often distrustful of the other colonists.
Describe the British and American armies during the War for Independence.
The British Army was paid and well-trained. It had ample supplies, career-trained leaders, but all were very unaccustomed to the terrain. The American Army was very rag-tag. It was comprised of volunteers who were not experienced in fighting. The Americans were not well-supplied.
What countries other than Great Britain entered the War for Independence?
Holland, Spain, and France
Discuss the peace negotiations held in Paris during 1782 and 1783.
Three American peace negotiators meet in Paris: Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay. These men were given instructions to make no peace without first consulting the French. John Jay was unwilling to play France’s game. Therefore, he made secret overtures to the British. The British speedily came to terms with the Americans. A preliminary peace treaty was signed in 1782. In 1783 the British, in The Treaty of Paris, recognized the independence of the U.S., gave to the U.S. unlimited fishing rights off the coast of Newfoundland, and set generous boundaries. The U.S. also conceded that Loyalists would no longer be persecuted and Congress would recommend to state legislatures that confiscated Loyalist property be restored. Furthermore, the U.S. would put no lawful obstacles in the way of collecting debts owed to British creditors.
Describe the constitutional process the colonies underwent once they had become free and independent states.
Each state would send delegates to a state constitutional convention. At this convention delegates drew lines of electoral districts, decided whether or not to ratify the constitution of that particular state.
What rights did the new constitutions state that government must leave inviolate?
life, liberty, land
Describe the successes and failures of the Confederation period.
Successes: designed a firm league of friendship, could hold foreign relations; Failures: didn’t have a good money-people relationship, congress couldn’t enforce the Treaty of Paris, didn’t know how to keep the British out of the Great Lakes
Describe the Ordinance of 1787.
The Ordinance of 1787 (or the Northwest Ordinance): abolished slavery, prohibited cruel and unjust punishment, guaranteed freedom of religion in this region.