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Teratogens

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lilyo's version from 2016-06-13 19:56

Section

Question Answer
ACE inhibitorsrenal damage
Alkylating agentsabsence of digits, multiple anomalies
Aminoglycosideototoxicity
Antiepileptic drugsNeural tube defects, cardiac defects, cleft palate, skeletal abnormalities (eg, phalanx/nail hypoplasia, facial dysmorphism)
DiethylstillbestrolVaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma, congenital Müllerian anomalies
Folate antagonistsneural tube defects
Isotretinoinmultiple severe birth defects
LithiumEbstein anomaly (apical displacement of tricuspid valve)
MethimazoleAplasia cutis congenita
TetracyclinesDiscolored teeth, inhibited bone growth
ThalidomideLimb defects (phocomelia, micromelia— “flipper” limbs)
WarfarinBone deformities, fetal hemorrhage, abortion, ophthalmologic abnormalities
AlcoholCommon cause of birth defects and intellectual disability; fetal alcohol syndrome
CocaineLow birth weight, preterm birth, IUGR, placental abruption
SmokingLow birth weight (leading cause in developed countries), preterm labor, placental problems, IUGR, SIDS
Iodine (lack or excess)Congenital goiter or hypothyroidism (cretinism)
Maternal diabetesCaudal regression syndrome (anal atresia to sirenomelia), congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, macrosomia
Methylmercuryneurotoxicity
Vitamin A excessextremely high risk for spontaneous abortions and birth defects (cleft palate, cardiac)
X-raysmicrocephaly, intellectual disability
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