Teleological Argument (TA)

opticlops's version from 2015-05-13 13:42

Section 1

Question Answer
Psalms 19:1"The heavens declare the glory of god; the skies proclaim the work of his hands"
What type of argument is the TAA posteriori (after sense experience); inductive (premises lead to a conclusion that is probable but is not necessarily true); part of family of argyments which are put into two categories- TAs from design and TAs to design
Where does the word teleological derive fromThe greek word Telos meaning and or purpose

Part A

Question Answer
who influence aquinas?Aristotle and his 4 cause theory- aquinas made the final cause God
Which of Aquinas' ways is the TAThe 5th
Give the 5th WayIn the natural world, everything follows natural laws; If a things follows natural laws they tend to do well and have Telos; if a thing cannot think for itself it does not have any goal or purpose unless it is directed by something that thinks (awuinas gives an example of an archer and an arrow); Everything in the natural world that does not think for itself heads towards a goal or purpose; "Except [when] under the direction of someone with awareness" (Aquinas); "Everything in nature is directed to its foal by someone with intelligence- God"(Aquinas)
Aquinas archer quote"An arrow can only be directed to its goal and used for its purpose by an archer"
Why must the reason for our existence be explained?As we are not immortal
What is the argument by regularity?Basis of argument is on the act that things in nature follow certain laws and lead to telos
What is Paley's argument based on (vardy)"Like effects have like causes"- Vardy, the puzzle of God
What does Paley say would happen if when crossing a heath your foot struck a stoneYou would not quetion that "it had lain there forever" (Paley Natural Theology)
What else can one figure out from the watchIf the parts where different, the watch could not fulfil its purpose- "It is inevitable that the watch must have had a maker"
What does Paley link the watch to and what conclusions does he draw from it?Links the watch to the universe; the universe also shows features of design and concludes that the universe also had "an intelligent designer" (Paley)

Paley making up crits and responding (look up notes- still confused)

Question Answer
How does he respond to the watch or universe not working?The design is still evident
What if we do not know everything about the watch? (Meaning that we may discover that it may not need a designer)"No doubts would remain in our minds as to the utility or intention of these parts"
1st Objection and responseWe never knew the artist capable of making a watch (re a universe) or we do not know how the work was accomplished. Paley's response: Just because we don't know who the artist might be, it doesn't follow that we cannot know that there is one.
2nd oBjection and responseThe parts of the watch (re universe) do not work perfectly; the designer is not evident. Paley's response: It is not necessary to show that something is perfect in order to show that there is a design present.
3rd Objection and response Some parts of the watch (re the universe) seem to have no function and so would seemingly not be designed. Paley's response: Simply because we do not know the function of the parts does not imply that the parts have no function. He believes the design is evident from observing the rest of the watch (re the universe).
4th objection and responseThe watch (re universe) is only one possible form of many possible combinations and so is a chance event. Paley's response: The design cannot be a result of chance; no person in his senses could believe this.
5th Objection and responseThere is a law or principle that disposed the watch (re universe) to be in that form. Paley's response: The existence of a law presupposes a lawgiver with the power to enforce the law. A principle of order cannot cause or create (the existence of) the watch. (re the universe).
6th objection and responseThe watch (re the universe) is no proof of contrivance; only motive induces the mind to think that it is. Paley's response: The design is evident to an impartial person.
7th Objection and responseThe watch (re the universe) came about as a result of the laws of metallic nature. Paley's response: The presence of a law presupposes a lawgiver.
8th Objection and response One knows nothing at all about the matter. Paley's response: Certainly, by seeing the parts of the watch (re the universe), one can know the design.


Question Answer
What are the two worst things can one human do to anotherTake their life and deprive them of their livelihood
What does nature do regularly that humans do (but is considered bad)Take life and deprive people of their livelihood- sometimes does it worse
Mill quote on nature and disregard?"Nature does all this with the most lofty disregard both of mercy and of justice, firing her weapons indiscriminately"
Mill quote on nature and punishment"as though Nature were punishing people for acting well!”

Part B

Question Answer
Crtitque Aquinas about his point htat everything has a TelosThis is an assumption thata is never suported with evidence or an example- does everything follow a general law set down by a designer? Anthony Flew suggests Aquinas' cliam that things are directed to their Telos goes against available evidence
What is Richard Swinburne's critique?The claim is mistaken as it assumes that God imposes regularity and laws on the universe
What is interesting about Hume's objections to PaleyHe died 20 years before Paley published natural theology, but the objeections are still valid
What is the problem with the Aptness of the paley analogyA machine like universe shaped Paley's argument- obviously machines have makers, but if we saw a vegetable we wouldn't think that it had a make- by choosing a machine as an analogy we have already determined the outcome we want
What is the Epicurean thesisEverything is bound to fit up together at some point; with infinite time and finite particles, surely pur stable universe must arise e.g. Campbell uses monkey and shakespeare analogy
What is effect to cause?Hume uses analogy of a set of scales- there is a weight on one side, and an unknown weight on the other, one side is heavier but we don't know by how much- in the same way we cannot say that the watch was made by one maker or by many makers; this is the same of the universe; it is not logical to jump from the facts of this world to the infinite God (why nit many Gods?)
Anthropomorphoc analogyCause is proportional to effect- universe is not perfect, therefore god is not perfect
Analogy leads to a non-moral GodNatural evil shows that God cannot be just and good- "Workmen are judged in proportion to quality of work produced" (Peter Cole)
What is FR Tennant's anthropic principle rebuttle?The world is so precisely balance that to produce such a balanced environment it must've been planned
How did Dawkins use darwinism to attack TAWhat we see as design is apparent design- organisms adapt to their environment
Dawkins selfish gene quotes"Natural Selection is a blind, unconscious, automatic process" (The Blind Watchmaker); "Evolution has no long term goal" (Blind Watchmaker)
JS Mill inferenceWe live in a flawed universe from which we can infer a flawed creator- Kenny says this argument "leads to a God which is no more the source of good than the source of evil"

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