katelizgrant's version from 2015-10-16 04:36


Question Answer
Domain: Bacteria / Phylum: SpirochaetesFound in contaminated H2O, soil, sewage, and bodies of humans/animals. All species stain as gram negative cells. All are motile by axial filaments. They can be aerobic, anaerobic, or facultative anaerobic.
Phylum: Spirochaetes Species: Treponema pallidumCausative agent of syphilis. Transmitted by sexual contact of all kinds. Incubation is 3 weeks to several months. Testing is done using a slide antibody test. Progresses slowly in three stages. Treatment: Penicillin, IV, IM
Phylum: Spirochaetes Species: Borrelia burgdorferiMost common TICK-BORNE bacterial disease. Causes lyme disease. Acquired from ticks, lice, other vectors. Progresses in stages similar to syphilis. Can lead to immunologically mediated damage. 1) Bull's eye rash 2) Myocarditis, aseptic meningitis, Bell's palsy 3) Arthritis. Treatment: doxycycline, amoxicillin
Phylum: Spirochaetes Species: Leptospira interrogansCauses leptospirosis. Causes a zoonotic infection in humans. Acquired through contact with contaminated urine in water, soil, or directly from dogs, cats. Infection occurs by direct contact. Most cases: fever, recovering in 2-3 weeks. 5-30% of untreated cases result in death. Sometimes severe liver or kidney disease. Renal failure is most common cause of death. Treatment: doxycycline, penicillin
Phylum: Proteobacteria Genus: BrucellaCauses brucellosis in cattle, goats, and hogs which can lead to spontaneous abortion. Spread by direct contact with infected tissues and contaminated feed. Can infect humans (brucellosis). Results from ingestion of contaminated, unpasteurized dairy products OR contact with infected animal carcasses. Most infections occur in slaughter houses. Undulant fever: 100-200 cases per year. Treatment: doxycycline and gentamycin for 6 weeks.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Genus: RickettsiasRod shaped or coccobacilli. Gram negative. Non-motile. Transmitted by fleas and ticks to humans. Similar to viruses. Obligate intracellular parasites.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Species: Rickettsia prowazekiiCauses epidemic typhus. Transmitted by lice, excreted through the GI tract of the louse. Feces are rubbed into wound when bitten host scratches the bite. Typically found in unsanitary conditions. High, prolonged fever for two or more weeks. Red spots. Myocardial and central nervous system functioning are affected. If untreated, mortality rate up to 60%. Treatment: tetracycline, chloramphenicol.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Species: R. rickettsiiCauses rocky mountain spotted fever. Transmitted by ticks. Damages vascular endothelium causing capillary leakage resulting in red spots. DIC, shock, coma, death. 1,800 per year in US, 0.5% mortality. Most recover spontaneously. Treatment: tetracycline, chloramphenicol, doxycycline
Phylum: Proteobacteria Genus: NeisseriaNon-endospore forming diplococci, unencapsulated. May be aerobic or facultatively anaerobic. Contain capsule, pili. Most species are normal inhabitants of upper respiratory and alimentary tract.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Species: Neisseria gonorrhoeaeCauses gonorrhea. Untreated infections can result in complications involving joints, heart, eyes, pharynx, or other body parts. Infection spreads along fallopian tube. Men: Single exposure results in a 20%-30% chance of infection. Primary site is urethra. Women: Single exposure results in a 60%-90% chance of infection. Primary site is the endocervix. Treatment: ciprofloxacin, penicillin
Phylum: Proteobacteria Species: Neisseria meningitidisCauses meningitis. Transmission: inhalation of respiratory droplets; penetrates epithelial lining of nasopharynx and reaches blood stream. Encapsulated, facultative, anaerobic, gram -. Vacacine: meningovax. Treatment: difficult - ceftriaxone, cefotaxamine.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Species: Bordetella pertussisCauses whooping cough. Spread by airbone droplets. The only host is humans. It is tropic for ciliated bronchial epithelium. Non-motile rod, virulent forms are encapsulated. Whooping cough: 50 coughing attacks per day for 2-4 weeks. 2014: 18,000 cases due to lack of vaccination. Vaccine: DaTP. Treatment: erythromycin, not effective in paroxysmal phase.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Genus: EnterobacteriaPrimary inhabitants of the lower GI tract of humans/animals. In humans they are the main facultative content of the colon. Also found in the female genital tract and transients on the skin. Most common colonizers of humans are: E. Coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, and Enterobacter. All species produce Lipopolysaccharide LPS (a powerful endotoxin). Facultatively anaerobic.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Subspecies: Escherichia spp.Are facultative anaerobes. Most common inhabitant of the GI tract. Normal flora. All species ferment glucose to gas and acid.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Species: E. coliMost common cause of urinary tract, bladder, and renal pelvis and kidney infections. Causes 35% of all UTIs. Cystitis. Causes 75% of all Pyelonephritis.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Species: E. coli O157:H7Causes hemolytic uremic syndrome due to shiga toxin & LPS entering the blood stream. Transmitted to humans from cattle by undercooked beef and contaminated raw milk. Also known as EHEC. First outbreak in 1982. 0.9/100,000 in US.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Genus: SalmonellaUbiquitous pathogens found in digestive tracts of humans and their livestock, wild animals, reptiles, birds, and even insects. Can contaminate food or water. Symptoms begin 12-72 hours after ingestion of contaminated food. Transmitted through contaminated eggs, poultry, reptiles, and improper food prep. 1 million illnesses per year, 19,000 hospitalizations, 380 deaths in US. Diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps. Lasts for 4-7 days.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Species: S. typhiCauses typhoid fever, an important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Spread only in feces of humans. Incubation period is 13 days. Prolonged fever, multi-organ system involvement. Treatment: electrolytes, antibiotics.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Species: Shigella dysenteriaeCauses bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). Muscle aches, traveler's diarrhea which destroys lining of large intestine. Transmitted in contaminated food and water. 20,000-30,000 cases in the US every year. Treatment: antibiotic therapy, electrolyte replacement.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Species: Shigella sonneiCauses a less severe form of shigellosis. Most comon species in the US.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Species: Klebsiella pneumoniaeCauses classic lobar pneumoniae in aged persons and or immunocompromised individuals. Most common cause of acute bacterial respiratory pneumonia in male alcoholics over 40 years old. Commonly found in normal intestinal flora.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Species: Serratia marcescensProduces a red pigment on agar plates. Gram - rod. Infections: urinary and respiratory tract infections; hospital infections - found in catheters, saline solutions; can cause septicemia (bacteria dividing in the blood).
Phylum: Proteobacteria Species: Yersinia pestisCausative agent of Bubonic plague. Carried by rats, squirrels, vectors. Bubos-large swelling of the lymph nodes. Pneumonic plague occurs in 1% of all plague patients. Highly contagious. Treatment: ciprofloxacin, trimethoprium-sulfamethoxazole.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Species: Haemophilus influenzaeMost common cause of meningitis in young children. Carrier rates are as high as 80% in children, 20-50% in healthy adults. Transmission is by respiratory droplets. Major infections in children are: sinusitis, otitis, meningitis, epiglotitis, also arthritis. Treatment: ceftriaxone, trimethoprim-sulfameethoxazole. Untreated meningitis = 90% mortality. Hib vaccine.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Species: Pseudomonas aeruginosaInfections of urinary tracts, burns, wounds, meningitis, dermatitis, otitis externa. Rod shaped, common in soil, some are psycrophilic, gream negative. Produces blue-green pigmentation. Treatment: gentamicin, carbenicillin.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Species: Legionella pneumophilaCauses pneumonia called Legionellosis. Contaminants of warm water supplies in hospitals, water in cooling towers of air conditioners. Gram negative. 6 species have been discovered. 25,000 cases each year.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Species: Coxiella burnetiiCauses Q fever: chills, fever, chest pains, rarely fatal. Also causes endocarditis:10% of cases; fatalities occur from heart involvement. Airborne or foodborne.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Species: Francisella tularensisCauses tularemia (rabbit fever). Symptoms are similar to the plague. Contact to humans is by direct contact of infected animal (feces or urine) or by vector. Causes swelling in the lymph nodes. In the US - 200 cases in hunters in 2010. Without treatment: death occurs in 5-30% of cases
Phylum: Proteobacteria Species: Vibrio choleraeCauses cholera, a severe gastroenteritis. Requires ingestion of large numbers of bacteria to overcome the acidic environment of the stomach. Commonly found in H2O. Treatment: electrolyte, fluid replacement, tetracycline can shorten symptoms.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Species: Campylobacter jejuniFound in poultry and cattle. Causes an infections diarrhea. A new contributor to outbreaks of food born disease in fast food restaurants. Leading cause of foodborne illness in the US with 2 million cases/year.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Species: Campylobacter fetusCauses abortion in cattle and sheep.
Phylum: Proteobacteria Species: Helicobacter pyloriCauses peptic disease syndrome: gastric and duodenal ulcers. First identified in 1982. Only host is humans. Binds to type O blood cell antigens. People with type O blood are twice as likely to develop gastric ulcers or cancer. Ammonia from bacterial urease neutralizes stomach pH. 3% correlation to cancer. 30%-50% become infected in industrialized nations. 15% develop ulcers. Diagnosed by breath test or biopsy. Treatment: metronidazole with either tetracycline or amoxicillin, pepto-bismol.

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