robthescienceguy's version from 2016-01-28 03:07

Section 1

Question Answer
Digestive Tractmouth,pharynx,esophagus,stomach,small intestine,large intestine,anus.
mouthtongue and teeth make things small, makes food wet, saliva breaks glycosidic linkage.
Esophagusmoves food to stomach, cardiac sphincter prevents acid back flow.
Peristalsiswave of contractions.
Stomachgastral juices and acids mix with the bolus, muscles churn to speed digestion.
Duodenumall digestion, proteins to amino, lipids to fattyacids+glycerol, starches to monosac, DNA to nucleo, bile/
Bileemulsifies lipids, breaks fats into small bits making it water soluble.
Jejunumnutrients are absorbed, monosacc thru facil diff in blood, amino acids thru active trans in blood, fattyacids+glycerol thru diffuse into lymph.
Ileumabsorbs vitamin b12 + bile.
Liverprocessing, monosacc blood sugar lvls make ATP convert to fat, amino acids heal/grow muscles convert to gluc or fat, fats convert to gluc or stored.
Pancreasexocrine gland releases pancreatic juices to small intest, endocrine gland secretes hormones into the blood.
Ascending Colonferments fibers, produces vitamin k and b's.
Descending Colonreabsorbs water.
Rectumstores feces.
Anuswhere feces exits.
Ulcerative Colitisopen sores along colon+rectum.
Crohn's Diseaseopen sores along entire digestive tract, skin rashes, leg ulcers.
Constipationtoo much water is removed, feces is rocklike.
Diarrheadescending colon doesnt absorb enough water from feces, runny feces
Ulcerssores caused by bacterial infection or stress.

Section 2

Question Answer
Open Systeminsects,doesnt carry 02 or CO2, single blood vessel along dorsal side, pumped towards head and oozes into tissue thru sinuses and returns to heart.
Closed Systemvertebrates worms mollusks, blood is pumped into heart to lunge for exchange, back into heart and out to head arms and all lower body, then pumped back to heart.
Arteriesthick connective + smooth muscle, endothelium, lumen, delivers O2 to body tissue, valve just before capillaries.
Capillariesendothelium, lumen, gas exchange(02 out, CO2 in), nutrient exchange(glucose out, water in)
Veinsthin connective + smooth mucle, endothelium, lumen, brings CO2 to lungs for disposal, valves to stop leaks.
Lymph Systemsecondary drainage system.
Components of BloodRBC 45% transports O2+CO2 made in bone marrow, WBC 1% mitosis defend against virus+bacteria, plasma 55% water and dissolved prots nutris wastes used for transport as antibodies.
Blood Clottingtear, smooth muscle constricts, platelets stick to collagen fibers, clotting cascade fibrin attaches to plats and forms scab.
Electrical ControlSA fires muscles contract bkood into R vessicle, AV fires down bundle of his to purkinje fibers, purkinje fires ventricles contract.
Blood Pressuresystole over diastole norm is 120/80
Aneurismballoon outwards, surgery after detection.
Plaquedeposits of cholesterol calcium +fat that block vessels.
Atherosclerosiscoronary arteries are clogged, treated with nitroglycerin.
Blood Clottreated by blood thinners.
Heart Attackcomplete cloggage of 1 or more coronary artery, give pain medicine.
Arteriosclerosisclogged tubes resulting in them hardening, needs bypass surgery.
Sudden Cardiac Arrestheart doesnt pump adequitly, heart transplant or better lifestyle.
Hypertensionhigh blood pressure causing tears in arteries, given diuretics.
Strokeblood vessel in brain is clogged or bursts.

Section 3

Question Answer
Efficient Gas Exchange Surfacemoist,thin,large surface area, able to maintain steep diffusion gradiant otherwise diffusion is too slow.
Diffusion Gradient big difference in amount of O2 on one side vs the other.
WormsO2 diffuses into capillaries and is carried to body tissues.
Fishgills take in O2 and release CO2.
Insectstracheal system, gas exchange occurs at body tissues.
Nose or Mouthtraps bacteria+dust, moistens+ heats up air.
Pharynxmoistens air.
Larynxcontains vocal cord which vibrate to make noise.
TracheaC shaped rings , covered in mucous, trap dust, moistens, cilia.
BronchiC shaped rings, mucous,trap dust, moistens, cilia.
Ciliahair like move mucous balls upwards to be spit out.
Bronchiolessmaller bronchi, moisten, trap dust, cilia.
Alveolismall sacs used for gas exchange(O2 out, CO2 in).
How we Breath inhaling;contract muscles increase chest size, exhaling;relaxing muscles air expelled chest gets small.
Nervous ControlVagus nerve controls contraction of intercostal muscles, phrenic nerve controls diaphragm.
Infectious Diseasespathogens trapped inside, colds, influenza, pneumonia.
Asthmaconstriction of smooth muscle in bronchi or bronchioles, excess mucous, inhaler.
Bronchitisinflammation of the bronchi, excess mucous production.
Emphysemacilia are damaged and dont work, gunk builds up in alveoli, alveoli tear.
COPDChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, bronchitis + emphysema, inhaler.
Cystic Fibrosisviscous mucous, loosen mucous so person can cough it up.
Effects of Tobacco paralyzes cilia.
Respirometermeasures amount of air inhaled + exhaled.
Endoscopetube with camera
Fluorescent Dyes stick to cancer cells.

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