Systemics Final Review

taylormaloney's version from 2016-12-12 05:29

Section 1

Question Answer
Define HypertensionElevation of Bp above normal for an extended period of time.
Define BPThe pressure/force of circulating blood against the blood vessel walls
Define Systolic PressureMax pressure reached during the ejection of blood into aorta with ventricular contraction.
Define Diastolic PressureMinimum pressure maintained in walls of aorta between contractions of the heart.
What is Pulse Pressure?The difference between systolic and diastolic pressures.
Where are chemoreceptors located?Carotid Sinus and Aorta
Where are baroreceptors located?Walls of blood vessels in carotid sinus and arch of aorta.
Hypertension is often referred to as "________", because it's normally....Silent Killer, because it's normally asymptomatic.
Hypertension can lead to...Atherosclerosis, heart attack, heart failure, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and kidney failure.
Define Orthostatic ToleranceThe body's ability to maintain BP at all times.

Section 2

Question Answer
Define Congestive Heart FailureHeart's inability to pump sufficient blood to supply body's needs.
Congestive heart failure may be secondary to.Heart disease, chronic high BP, valve disease, viral infection, or alcoholism.
Symptoms of Left Ventricular FailureLung congestion, dyspnea/orthopnea, hacking/bloody cough, fatigue, drowsiness, cerebral hypoxia, paraoxymal nocturnal dyspnea.
Symptoms of Right Ventricular FailureEdema in liver/limbs, ascites, weight gain, distension of jugular veins, decreased liver function,

Section 3

Question Answer
Define ArteriosclerosisA group of diseases characterized by decreased elasticity and thickening of arterial walls.
Most common form?Atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis of Arteries...Coronary artery disease, coronary heart disease.
Atherosclerosis of brain...Cerebrovascular disease.
RF's that are non modifiable?Age, Gender, Genetics, Ethnicity, Infection.
RF's that are modifiableSmoking, cholesterol, hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes, hormonal status.

Section 4

Question Answer
Define Buerger's DiseaseThomboangitis Obliterans- vasculitis of peripheral blood system,arteries and veins, primarily affecting extremities.
Who does it primarily affect?Men, below 40 yrs of age who are smokers.
Symptoms?Pain and tenderness at site, epsodic and segmental, pulse loss usually in posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis pulses, intermittent claudication, Pain at rest, edema, rubor, cold sensitivity- leading to painful ulceration and eventual gangrene.
What is Raynauds ?Intermittent episodes of small artery or arteriole constriction in extremities causing temporary pallor and cyanosis of digits with change in temperature,Usually occurring due to change in temperature or emotions.
What is Raynauds disease?Primary vasospastic- 65% of cases. 80% women, 20-49 years old. unknown etiology.
What is Raynauds phenomenon?secondary to disease or underlying cause, 10-20% if general population. women 20X more likely. men RFs- age and smoking. women RFs marital status and alcohol.
What might it be a sign of for unilateral involving only one or two fingers?Cancer- refer to MD

Section 5

Question Answer
Stage 1 HypertensionMild- 140-159 Systolic/90-99 Diastolic
Stage 2 HyptertensionModerate- 160-179 Systolic/100-109 Diastolic
Stage 3 HypertensionSevere- 180-209 Systolic/110-119 Diastolic
Stage 4 HypertensionVery Severe- > 210 Systolic/ > 120 Diastolic

Section 6

Question Answer
Define EdemaLocal or generalized accumulation of fluid in interstitial tissue spaces.
Is it always appropriate to reduce edema?No, CFH pitting edema.
Lymphatic system returns 1-10% of interstitial fluid. How much is that approx?2.4 L a day approx.
Lymph vessels rely on what to move fluids?Skeletal mm's, diaphragm, peristalsis, and contraction of arteries.
Flow of lymph goes in what direction?Towards heart, unidirectional.

Section 7

Question Answer
What are the classifications of headaches?Primary/Secondary/Cranial Neuralgia
Define Primary HA's?Not caused by other diseases- such as migraine, tension, and cluster.
Define Secondary HA's?Caused by associated diseases and are categorized by etiology. Such as brain tumors,meningitis,withdrawl from analgesics etc.
Define Tension HAMost common type of primary, mostly response to stress,women over men.Associated with TPs and myofascial syndromes.Dull, constant, and diffusee/vicelike.Described as band around head.
Define Migraine HA2nd MC type. familial disorder, commonly unilateral w/ nausea/vomitting/anorexia/neurologic and mood disturbances. women over men. w/ w/out aura, photophobia,phonophobia.
Define Cluster HAMost painful, episodic=80%, chronic=20%.cluster period w/ alternating remission periods. mostly men. usually one eye region, boring but non throbbing pain, hypermasculine appearance with orangepeel skin, wrinkles, etc.
Define Sinus HAOften related to prior history of sinus inflammation/resp allergies, pain usually low to moderate intensity and present daily, usually localized and intensified by tapping over sinuses. worsened by bending over, blowing nose or sneezing.
Define Toxic HACaused by medication overuse, postdural puncture, air pollution, gasses/fumes/environmental factors, alcohol/drugs/tobacco etc. Kidney/liver dys
Cervical compression test- pt side flexes and rotates, add ext and compression. positive is vertigo,nystagmus, and nausea.
spurlings test-pt side flexes, examiner compresses straight down. positive is radiating pain down arm.
vertebral artery test-pt supine, head passively ext,sideflexed,rot- positive = dizziness, nystagmus,vertigo,nausea.
distraction test-head distracted- positive = pain subsides.

Section 8