robbypowell's version from 2015-12-07 15:10

Lower Extremity

Bones and Joints

Question Answer
The Hip is made up of what 3 bones (on each side)ilium, ischium, & pubis
What bone is in the thigh region?Femur
what are 5 features of the femur?Head (ball of hip joint), Greater Tuberosity, Lesser Tuberosity, Medial Condyle, Lateral Condyle (knee)
4 joints of upper part of lower limb (hip through knee)Sacroiliac, Pubic Symphysis, Hip Joint & Knee joint
How many axes does knee joint have?ONE (Uniaxial) (Flexion & Extension)
The Hip Joint is between what two boney featuresAcetabulum & Head of Femur
The lower leg is made up of what 2 bones?Fibula (smaller and lateral) & Tibia (larger and medial)
What foot joint can do Eversion & Inversion?Talo-calcaneuo-navicular joint
What foot joint can do Dorsiflexion & Plantarflexion?Ankle joint
What area of bone Contains the greatest absolute cancellous bone volume?iliac crest
what area of bone is the Most preferred donor site for bone graft?iliac crest
at what spinal level is the top of the iliac crest?L4
what nerves are at risk from iliac crest bone harvesting?CLUNEAL nerves (superior, middle & inferior)
what bone is an ideal site for autogenous bone graft?Tibia Metaphysis
When should a Tibia Metaphysis bone graft not be used?growing patient (affect elongation of leg)
What is ideal source for large bony gap grafting?Free Fibular Flap
What is major limitation of Free fibular flap?Peripheral Vascular disease

Muscles of thigh

Question Answer
What separates the Anterior group from the Posterior group?Lateral inter muscular septum
What separates the Medial group from the Posterior group?Posterior inter muscular septum
What structures make up the boundaries of the femoral triangle?Inguinal Ligament (S) Sartorus m. (L) Adductor Longus m. (M)
What are the 3 Quadriceps?Rectus Femoris, Vastus Medialis, & Vastus Lateralis
The adductor opening for the femoral artery is between the insertions of what muscle?Adductor Magnus
5 Contents of Femoral TriangleFemoral Vein, Artery and Nerve (VAN), Femoral canal, Deep Inguinal lymph nodes
Deep Inguinal lymph nodes receive lymph from what 3 regions?Lower extremity, Urogenital & Anal canal
Protrusion of abdominal viscus (loop of intestine) through the femoral canal into the thighFemoral Hernia
5 Contents of Popliteal FossaPopliteal Artery, Popliteal Vein, Tibial Nerve, Common Peroneal (fibular) nerve & Lymph nodes
Upper boundaries of Popliteal Fossa (lateral) Biceps Femoris & (Medial) Semitendinosus and semimembranosus
Lower boundaries of Popliteal Fossa(lateral) Lateral head of gastrocnemius & (medial) Medial head of gastrocnemius
What is nerve supply to anterior group (iliopsoas & quadriceps)Femoral nerve
What is nerve supply to posterior group (thigh flexor & knee extensor)Sciatic N.
What is the nerve supply to Medial group (Adductor of thigh)Obturator Nerve
Muscles of medial groupAdductor Magnus, •Adductor Longus, •Adductor Brevis, •Gracilis & •Obturator Externus

nerves of thigh (esp lumbosacral trunk)

Question Answer
A good donor for nerve grafting, e.g inferior alveolar n. reconstructionSural N.
spinal origin of Lateral Cut. NL 2-3
spinal origin of Femoral NL 2-4
spinal origin of Obturator NL 2-4
spinal origin of Lumbosacral trunkL 4-5
All of the Nerves of Lumbar Plexus get their origin from L 2-3 except _____ which instead gets it from L 4-5. ___ & ___ additionally receive from L4Lumbosacral trunk; Femoral & Obturator nerves

nerve injury

Question Answer
Weak thigh flexion, weak knee extension and sensory loss On the anterior thigh, medial leg and footfemoral N.
Loss of flexion of knee and weak extension of hip; Paralysis of all ms of leg and footSciatic N.
Foot drop & Inversion of footCommon Peroneal N.
Weak flexion of the knee, Weak plantar flexion of foot and weak inversion of the footInjury of Tibial N.
Weak hip extension -Difficulty rising from sitting position (patient climb on himself to stand up from sitting position and difficult climbing stairsinferior gluteal N.
weak abduction of the thigh, and impairment of gait (Waddling gait)Superior gluteal N.

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