robbypowell's version from 2015-11-10 17:04


Question Answer
process of breaking food into smaller fragmentsDigestion
process of digested material moving through mucosa into the bloodAbsorption
process of removing unabsorbed & secreted wastesElimination
6 Accessory digestive organsteeth, tongue, gall bladder, salivary glands, liver & pancreas (TTGSLP)
space bounded by abdominal walls, diaphragm and pelvisAbdominal Cavity
boundaries of abdominal cavity (3)abdominal walls, diaphragm, pelvis
serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavityPeritoneum
the abdominal cavity is subdivided into ___ regions by by ___ vertical and ___ horizontal lines9; 2; 2
the vertical lines that subdivide the abdominal cavity are the right and left ____ planesMidclavicular
The medial 3 subdivisions (bounded by the midclavicular planes) of the abdominal cavity traveling superior to inferior are the ____, ____, & _____Epigatrium, Umbilical, & Hypogastrium
The lateral subdivisions (both Rt & Lt the same name) of the Abdominal cavity are separated from the medial subdivisions by the ____ planeMid-Clavicular
The lateral subdivisions (regions) of the abdominal cavity, traveling from superior to inferior, are the ___, ___, & ___Hypochondrium, Lumbar & Iliac
The foregut includes all parts of the GI tract up to what landmark?Midpoint of Duodenum
esophagus, stomach, proximal 1/2 of duodenum, liver, pancrease and spleen are what “part” of Digestive system?Foregut
Are the liver, pancreas and spleen considered to be part of the Foregut, Midgut or Hindgut?Foregut
What is the arterial supply of the foregut?Coeliac Trunk
Distal 1/2 of duodenum, jejenum, ilium, cecum, appendix, ascending colon and rt 2/3 of transverse colon are considered to be what “part” of the digestive system?Midgut
The Midgut spans the GI tract between the distal 1/2 of the ____ and the proximal 2/3’s of the ____ ____Duodenum; Transverse Colon
What is the parasympathetic nerve supply of the Foregut?Vagus
What is the Sympathetic nerve supply of Foregut?Greater Splanchnic n.
What is the parasympathetic nerve supply of the Midgut?Vagus
What is the parasympathetic nerve supply of the Hindgut?Pelvic Splanchnic n.
What is the sympathetic nerve supply of the Midgut?Lesser Splanchnic n.
What is the sympathetic nerve supply of the Hindgut? & Lumbar Splanchnic n.
Left 1/3 of trans. Colon, descending colon, pelvic colon, rectum and upper 1/2 of anal canal are considered to be what “part” of the Digestive system?Hindgut
What is the arterial supply of the Midgut?Superior Mesenteric Artery
What is the arterial supply of the Hindgut?Inferior Mesenteric Artery
The Serous Membrane is formed of two layers… the ____ & ____ layersParietal & Visceral
component of peritoneum, the ____ Layer lines the inner surface of abdominopelvic wallparietal
component of peritoneum, the ____ layer invests viscera like stomach and spleenVisceral
What organs are in the Peritoneal space?None (Peritoneal cavity does not contain any organ- Organs are intra-abdominal extraperitoneal)
what organ is PARTIALLY covered by Visceral membrane?Pancreas
What organ is entirely Retroperitoneal?Kidneys
part of the abdominal cavity that lies between the posterior parietal peritoneum and anterior to the transversalis fasciaRetroperitoneal space
double layer of peritoneum fused together that extends to the organs from the posterior body wallmesentery (?)
Provides support for the organs, vessels & nerves supplying the organsMesentery
Retroperitoneal organs include parts of what 3 organs? the entirety of what organs?Parts of Large, Small Intestine, & Pancreas; Entirety of Kidneys
This foramen is bounded anteriorly by hepatic artery, CBD and portal vein and posteriorly by IVCEpiploic Foramen (of Winslon)
The Epiploic Foramen of Winslon allows communication between what and what?Greater Peritoneal Sac and Lesser Peritoneal Sac
The Epiploic Foramen of Winslon is bounded anteriorly by ___ artery, ___ ___ duct & ___ veinHepatic artery, Common Bile duct; Portal Vein
Double layer of peritoneum that connects an organ with abd. Wall or other organperitoneal ligaments
Peritoneal ligamentsDouble layer of peritoneum connects an organ with abd. Wall or other organ
Double layer peritoneum thet extends from stomach and 1st part of duodenum to adjacent organsOmentum
_____ _____ is made up of Hepatogastric and hepatoduodenal ligamentsLesser Omentum
Free margin of Lesser Omentum contains what important vessels?Hepatic Triad (Portal Vein, Hepatic Artery and Common Bile Duct)
What 3 vessels make up the Hepatic TriadPortal Vein, Hepatic Artery & Common Bile Duct
What are the 3 parts of the Greater Momentum?gastro-PHRENIC, gastro-SPLENIC and gastro-COLIC
a _____ is Formed by invagination of the peritoneum by an organMesentery
Peritoneal ___ carry blood supply to the different organsFolds
The Esophagus is Muscular tube ___ inches long and _________ cm in diameter.10 inches long; 2 cm diameter
Where does the Esophagus enter the Abdomen?Esophageal opening (in diaphragm) left of midline at T10 in the muscular right crus of diaphragm
Blood Supply of the Esophagus: Cervical Esophagusinferior thyroid artery and vein
Blood Supply of the Esophagus: Thoracic partdescending aorta azygos vein
Blood Supply of the Esophagus: Abdominal partLeft Gastric artery and vein
Proximal end of Esophagus is ____ muscle, Distal end is ____ muscle and middle is a mixStriated; Smooth
Liver develops in the ____ mesentery, Spleen develops in the ____ mesentery, & Pancreas develops in the _____ mesenteryVentral; Cranial; Dorsal
During development, the stomach rotates 90 degrees to the ____Right
Right Vagus becomes ____ gastric nerve; Left Vagus becomes _____ gastric nervePosterior; Anterior
Ventral mesentry divides into ____ ______ between the liver and anterior abdominal wall and _____ ______ between the liver and stomachFalciform Ligament; Lesser Momentum
During development the part between spleen and stomach forms the _______ _____ and the part between stomach and pancreas forms mainly the _____ _______.Gastrosplenic Ligament; Greater Omentum
2 enzymes secreted by stomachPepsin & Lipase
Hormone released by stomachSomatostatin
enzyme in stomach associated with protein digestionPepsin
Enzyme in stomach associated with triglyceride digestionLipase
specialized valve found between the esophagus and the stomach. It prevents backflow of food and digestive enzymesCardiac "sphincter"
the proximal region of the stomach. It begins digestion of proteins and mixes together stomach contentsFundus
central region of the stomachBody of stomach
the distal region of the stomach. It contracts to empty materials from the stomach into the small intestinePylorus
specialized valve that prevents materials and digestive enzymes from escaping into the small intestine before digestion is completed in the stomachPyloric Sphincter
Stomach muscles: Outer = _____, Middle = _____, and Inner = _____Longitudinal; Circular; Oblique
_____ cells present mainly in fundus and body secrete HCO3- and H+ that combine to form HCl in the lumen.Parietal (Oxyntic) cells
_____ cells present in basal part of the gland and Secret pepsin and lipaseChief cells (Zymogenic)
_____ cells have differing products depending on location within stomach: In fundus they produce serotonin, In pylorus they secrete gastrin (G cells) and Somatostatin (D cells) Enteroendocrine cells
G cells secrete _____Gastrin
D cells secrete _____Somatostatin
Gastrin acts on _____ cells and causes them to secrete ____Parietal; HCl
Increased HCl acts on ____ cells and causes them to release ____ which lowers gastrin and HClD cells; Somatostatin
___ are found on the interior layer of the stomach and aid in breaking down food when the stomach contractsRugae
7 Structures behind the stomach and separated from stomach by the lesser sac1) Spleen, 2) Pancreas, 3) Splenic Artery 4) Transverse & Mesocolon 5) Left Kidney 6) Left Suprarenal gland & 7) Diaphragm
The rich arterial supply of the stomach arises from the ____ ____ and its branchesCeliac Trunk
Most stomach blood is supplied by anastomoses formed along the lesser curvature by the right and left ____ arteries, and along the greater curvature by the right and left _____ arteriesGastric arteries; Gastro-omental (Gastro-epiploic) arteries
The fundus and upper body receive blood from the ____ _____ and ____ _____ arteriesShort Gastic; Posterior Gastric
All gastric veins drain finally into the ____ veinPortal Vein
Parasympathetic n. supply of stomachVagus nerves (via Medulla)
Sympathetic n. supply of stomachCeliac Ganglia (arising from T5 – T9)
_____ _____ suspended from greater curvature of stomach and loops back up to attach to transverse colonGreater Omentum
_____ _____ has superior attachment to liver by lesser curvature of stomachLesser Omentum
gastric border of Lesser Omentum contains right and left ____ vessels.Gastric
Greater Omentum contians ____ vesselsGastro-epiploic (gastro-omental)
___ _____ runs between upper part of greater curvature of stomach and spleen.Gastro-splenic Ligament
Gastrosplenic Ligament contains ____ _____ vesselsShort Gastric
2nd part of Duodenum receives the opening of hepatopancreatic duct at ______ _____ papillaMajor Duodenal Papilla
2nd part of Duodenum receives the opening of _____ duct at ______ Major Duodenal PapillaHepato-Pancreatic duct
2nd part of Duodenum receives the opening of _____ _____ duct at Minor Duodenal PapillaAccessory Pancreatic duct
2nd part of Duodenum receives the opening of Accessory Pancreatic duct at _____ ______ PapillaMinor Duodenal papilla
Arterial Supply of Duodenum (2 arteries)(SPD & IPD) Superior Pancreatico-duodenal (branch of Gastroduodenal) and Inferior Pancreatico-duodenal (branch of Superior Mesenteric) arteries
thin strip of muscle connecting the junction between the Duodo-jejunal junction and connective tissue surrounding the superior mesenteric arterySuspensory Ligament of Trietz (Suspensory Muscle of Duodenum)
thin strip of muscle that enables the passage from Duodenum to JejunumSuspensory "Ligament" of Trietz
Stomach Carcinoma is usually in the ____ region or lower ____, close to the ____ lymph nodesPyloric; Lower Body; Pyloric Lymph nodes
____ ulcers are four times more prevalent than ____ ulcersDuodenal; Gastric (Peptic)
____ Ulcer: in the Posterior aspect of the duodenal bulbDuodenal Ulcer
____ _____ infection responsible for almost 80% of duodenal and 70% of gastric ulcersHelicobacter Pylori
______ Artery, posterior to pyloric area, can be affected by an ulcer if the wall is erodedGastroduodenal artery
2 social history causes of Peptic (Gastric) or Duodenal ulcera Smokin' & a Drinkin'
protrusion (or herniation) of the upper part of the stomach into the thorax through a tear or weakness in the diaphragmHiatus Hernia
Jejunum has ___ arcades, ___ vasa recta, and ____ fat than the IleumSimple arcades; Long vasa recta; Less fat
Ileum has ___ arcades, ___ vasa recta, and ____ fat than the JejunumMore arcades, Short vasa recta, More fat
Peyer's patches are associated with what part of Small Intestine?Ileum
Brunner's Glands are associated with what part of Small Intestine?Duodenum
Plicae Circularis (aka Kerkling's "valves") are associated with what part of Small Intestine?Jejunum
____ cells secrete disaccharidase and peptidaseAbsorptive
____ cells secrete mucus (protection and lubrication)Goblet
Goblet cells secrete what?Mucus
Absorptive cells secrete ____ & ____Disaccharide & Peptidase
Paneth cells secrete what?Lysozymes
____ cells secrete lysozymes (bactericidal effect)Paneth
Mucosal glands of small intestine secrete ____ that causes contraction of Gall bladder and secretion of pancreatic enzymesCholecystokinin
Submucosal glands of Duodenum that provide alkaline environment (optimum for enzyme action)Brunner's glands
Arterial supply of Sm. Intestine: ____ and ____ branches of _____ _____ arteryIleal & Jejunal branches; S. Mesenteric artery
most common malformation of the gastrointestinal tractMeckel's Diverticulum
Meckel's Diverticulum is present in ___% of the population2%
2 kinds of ectopic tissue in Meckel's DiverticulumGastric & Pancreatic
Meckek's Diverticulum is ___ inches long and ___ feet from the Ileocecal valve2 inches; 2 feet
2 complications of Meckel's DiverticulumBleeding and Perforation
Large Intestine spans from ____ valve to ____Ileocecal valve to Anus
pocket-like segments of large intestineHaustra
fat filled pouches of visceral peritoneum (large intestine) are called ____ appendagesEpiploic appendages
Colic branches from ____ _____ artery Supply of cecum, asending colon and right 2/3 of transverse colon (first part Large Int)Superior Mesenteric artery
Colic branches of _____ _____ artery supply left 1/3 of transvers colon, descending colon, pelvic colon and rectum and upper ½ of anal canalInferior Mesenteric artery
Colic veins drain into ____ veinPortal vein
____ ____ ____ accounts for 50% of all patient visits to gasteroenterologists.Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Gut ______ is involved in Irritable Bowel Syndrome5-Hyroxy-Tryptamine
Inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are causes for ___ ___ syndromeIrritable Bowel Syndrome
Peak Incidence of Colon cancer (due to Irritable Bowel Syndrome?) is between ages ___ and ___60-70 yo
Pancreatitis can spread to the transverse colon, via the ____ ____Transverse Mesocolon (meso-fold of peritoneum)
twisting of the sigmoid colon. It can lead to a strangulation of the vessels and eventual necrosisVolvulus
Vulvulus is twisting of the ____ colonSigmoid
3 risk factors for colon cancerFamily History, High Fat diet, & Inflammatory bowel diseases

Recent badges