robbypowell's version from 2015-10-05 00:17

Thoracic Cage

Question Answer
How many pairs of ribs are there?12 pairs of ribs
Which ribs are True ribs?1-7
Which ribs are False ribs?8-10
Which ribs are Floating ribs?11 & 12
What is the difference between True Ribs and False Ribs?True ribs connect to costal cartilage that directly connects to sternum, False ribs' cartilage does not connect to sternum
groove located close to the lower border of the inner surface of the rib. It contains intercostal vien, artery and nerve from above downward (VAN)Costal Groove
Contents of the Costal GrooveIntercostal Vein, Artery & Nerve
3 parts of the SternumManubrium, Body, Xyphoid process
The ___ (part of sternum) articulates with the 1st & 2nd ribs and the clavicleManubrium
The ___ (part of sternum) articulates with the 2nd through 7th ribsBody of Sternum
The Sternal Angle is at the level between _________ and _________T3 & T4
The ___ ___ (part of sternum) articulates only with the 7th ribXyphoid process
There are ____ anterior and ___ posterior intercostal spaces9 anterior; 11 posterior
3 Contents of an intercostal spaceIntercostal muscles, Intercostal nerve, Intercostal vessels
Which intercostal muscles elevates the rib during inspiration?External intercostal muscle
Which intercostal muscles depress the rib during expiration?Internal Intercostal muscle
Anterior intercostal arteries are sourced from what artery?Internal Thoracic Artery (off subclavian 1st part)
Posterior intercostal arteries are sourced from what arteries?1st 2 from Intercostal artery (of thyrocervical trunk of 2nd part of Subclavian A.); 3-9 from Descending aorta
Areterial Anastomoses in intercostal spaceposterior intercostal with anterior intercostal
Anterior Intercostal veins drain into the ____ ___ vein which drains into the ____ veinInternal Thoracic (mammary); Brachiocephalic
Right Posterior 1st intercostal vein drains into which vein?Right Innominate Vein
Left Posterior 1st Intercostal vein drains into which vein?Left Innominate Vein
2nd and 3rd Right Posterior intercostal veins merge to form ___ which drains into ____ veinRight Superior Intercostal Vein; Azygos
5-11th Right Posterior Intercostal veins drain into ____ veinAzygos vein
2nd and 3rd Left posterior intercostal veins merge to form ___ which drains into ___ veinLeft Superior Intercostal Vein; Lt. Innominate vein
Left 5-8th Posterior Intercostal veins converge to form ____ which drains into ___ veinSuperior Hemiazygos vein; Azygos vein
Left 9-11th Posterior Intercostal veins converge to form ____ which drains into ___ veinInferior Hemiazygos vein; Azygos vein
The Azygos vein begins in abdomen from back of ___ at level of ___Inferior Vena Cava; L2
The Azygos vein Enters thorax through _________ ___ of diaphragm on Rt. side of thoracic duct & aorta.Aortic Foramina
Intercostal nerves are the ___ ____ ___ of spinal thoracic nerves from _________ to ___Anterior Primary Rami; T1-T12
_________ to _________ are the Typical Intercostal nerves, which are restricted to intercostal spacesT3-T6
_________ & _________ are Atypical intercostal nerves in that they supply their intercostal space and the upper extremityT1 & T2
_________ through ___ and the ___ nerve are atypical intercostal nerves in that they supply lower intercostal spaces and abdominal wallT7-T11 & Subcostal nerve (T12)
Typical intercostal nerves, ___ & ___ ___ communicate with sympathetic ganglionWhite & Grey Rami
___ branch of intercostal nerves supply Intercostal musclesCollateral
_________ ____ branch of intercostal nerves give supply to skinLateral Cutaneous
The only intercostal nerve that supplies the Brachial Plexus isT1 (1st intercostal)
2nd Intercostal nerve Joins to the medial cutaenous nerve of the arm, by a branch called the ____ nerveIntercostobrachial nerve
The 7th-11th intercostal nerves are, collectively, called the _____ nervesThoracoabdominal nerves
Costal arch is formed by which costal cartilages?7-10
What are the 3 bones that are fused to form the Hip (Coxal bones)Illium, Ischium, Pubis
the ____ ligament indicated at surface by depression separating leg from abdomen?Inguinal Ligament
Feature of abdominal wall: midline from xiphoid to pubic bone, umbilicus - at level of L4Linea Alba
Feature of abdominal wall: parallels linea alba on each side; marks lateral border of rectus abdominisLinea Semilunaris
Feature of abdominal wall: 3 horizontal divisions of rectus abdominis between linea semilunaris and albaTendinous Intersection
4 muscles of abdominal wallExternal Oblique, Internal Oblique, Tranverse Absominus, Rectus Abdominus
Abdominal muscles that Flexion and rotation of the the vertebral columnExternal Oblique, Internal Oblique
Abdominal muscles that Flattens the abdominal wall and compress the abdominal visceraTransverse Abdomens
Spermatic cord passes through the ___ ___Inguinal Canal
What is the primary Inspiratory muscle?the Diaphragm
Anterior Boundaries of thoracic cageSternum, Costal cartilages, and ribs.
Posterior Boundaries of thoracic cageThoracic vertebrae and ribs.
Lateral Boundaries of thoracic cageRibs
Anterior Boundaries of Thoracic InletUpper border of MANUBRIUM STERNI (uppermost portion of sternum)
Posterior Boundaries of Thoracic Inlet1st thoracic vertebra.
Lateral Boundaries of Thoracic Inlet1st rib & 1st costal cartilage.
The ___ ___ connects the viscera, blood vessels, and nerves from the neck into the Thoracic cage?Thoracic Inlet
What major Arteries pass through the Thoracic Inlet?Right Brachicephalic Artery; Left Common Carotid & Left Subclavian
What are the branches of Brachicephalic artery?Right Common Carotid & Right Subclavian Arteries
What 3 nerves travel between neck and Thoracic cavity?Vagus, Phrenic, Sympathetic Trunk
What branches from Vagus and Sympathetic travel all the way down to the heart?Cervical Cardiac branches of Vagus (parasympathetic) Cervical Cardiac branches of Sympathetic trunk (sympathetic)
What is the most posterior structure located WITHIN the Thoracic Inlet?Apex of Lung
The head of the 5th Rib articulates with which Vertebrae?T4 & T5
4 parts of the ribHead, Tubercle Angle, Shaft and Anterior end
Rib 5 articulating with what articular facet?T5 (articular facet interacts with rib of same level)
T4 articulates with which ribs?Ribs 4 & 5 (same number and the rib below)
Articulation between rib and costal cartilage is called ____ junctionCosto-Chondral junction
What are the only 2 pairs of ribs that do not articulate anteriorly?11 & 12 (floating ribs)
How many Intercostal spaces are there in the Anterior?9 spaces (on each side)
How many Intercostal spaces are there in the Posterior?11 spaces (on each side)
How many Anterior Intercostal vessels are there on each side?9
How many Posterior Intercostal vessels are there on each side?11
The deepest layer or Intercostal tissue is either ____ or ____ depending on the location, but is mostly ___Pleura, Pericardium; Mostly Pleura
What are the 3 layers of muscle in Intercostal spaces?External, Internal, & Innermost muscle layers
Between what two layers are Intercostal vessels and nerves found?Internal muscle layer and Innermost muscle layer
What is the organization of Intercostal vessels and nerves from superior to inferior?Intercostal Vein, Artery & Nerve (VAN)
What is the orientation of External Intercostal Muscle fibers?Down and medially
What is the orientation of Internal Intercostal Muscle fibers?Down and laterally
When inserting a tube for emergency drainage of a space within the Thoracic cavity... where in the Intercostal space (inferior or superior) should a tube be inserted and why?Inserted in Inferior Intercostal space; because VAN structures are in Superior 3rd
The External Intercostal muscles Begin from post. end of Intercostal space and Ends at the ___ junction where it is replaced by the ___ ___ membraneCosto-Chondral junction; Anterior Intercostal membrane
T/F: The External Intercostal muscles extend medially to the sternum False (end at Costo-Chondral junction)
Nerve supply of External Intercostal muscle?Corresponding Intercostal N.
T/F: The Internal Intercostal muscles extend medially to the sternumTrue
The Internal Intercostal muscles Begin anteriorly close to the sternum and END at the ____ of the rib where they are replaced by ____ membraneAngle of the Rib; Posterior Membrane
What muscles support the Anterior Intercostal Membrane?Internal Intercostal (this is b/c the Ant Intercost mem is continuation of External, where external does not run, but Internal Intercostal muscle does)
What muscles support the Posterior Intercostal Membrane?External Intercostal Muscles (this is b/c the Post Intercost Mem is continuation of Internal Inter Cost muscles, which do not run past angle of ribs)
The innermost muscular Intercostal layer is made up of the ___ ___ musclesTransverse Thoracic
Accessorry Muscles of InspirationSCM & Scalenes
Primary muscle of Inspiration is the ____ but also the ___ ___ musclesDiaphragm; External Intercostal
The upper Anterior Intercostal arteries are branches from the ___ ___ artery, while the lower 3 Anterior Intercostal arteries are branches from the ___ branch of the ___ ___ arteryinternal thoracic (mammory) artery; Musculo-phrenic branch; Internal Thoracic artery
Internal Thoracic artery is a branch off of the ____ part of the ____ artery1st part of Subclavian Artery
The subclavian artery ultimately supplies the which Intercostal arteries?Anterior intercostals (1-6 directly, 7-9 via musculophrenic branch) & 1st & 2nd Posterior Intercostal arteries (via superior intercostal arteries) 11 total
Attachment points for the Inguinal LigamentAnterior Iliac Spine & Pubic Tubercle
What is the innermost layer of the anterior abdominal wall?Peritoneum
What is the serous membrane of the abdominal organs?Peritoneum
What is the medial border of Rectus Abdominus?Linea Alba
What is the lateral border of Rectus Abdominus?Linea Seminlunaris
What are the 3 Anterolateral Abdominal wall muscles from Superficial to deep?External Oblique, Internal Oblique, Transverse Abdominus
What are the 3 insertions of the External Oblique abdominal muscles?1. Linea Alba 2. Inguinal Ligament 3. Anterior Iliac Crest
What is the origin of the External Oblique abdominal muscles?Lower 7 ribs (5-12)
Superior Epigastric Artery, deep vessel of abdominal wall, is the terminal branch of ___ ___ arteryInternal Thoracic artery
Inferior Epigastric Artery, deep vessel of abdominal wall, is coming from ___ ___ arteryExternal Iliac artery
____ is the superior division of L1 and ______ is the inferior division of L1Iliohypogastric nerve; Ilioinguinal nerve
the ___ nerve innervates area just inferior to inguinal ligament to skin of superior and medial thigh and scrotum in male or labia in female.IlioInguinal
Fibrous compartment for rectus abdominis muscle Formed of the aponeurosis of abdominal muscles and has a posterior layer and anterior layerRectus sheath
Contents of Rectus SheathRectus abdominis muscle, Inferior and superior epigastric vessels and Terminal parts of the lower five intercostal nerves, and the Subcostal nerve and pyramidalis ms.
short passage that extends inferiorly and medially, through the inferior part of the abdominal wall between the deep and superifical inguinal ringsInguinal canal
acts as a pathway by which structures can pass from the abdominal wall to the external genitaliaInguinal canal
___ ___ is a potential weakness in the abdominal wall, and therefore a common site of herniationInguinal canal
Neurovascular plane is between the ___ layer of muscles and the ___ layer of musclesInnermost & Inner (or middle)
Pain around the Umbilicus is associated with what spinal nerve?T10
A fibrous cord of tissue called the ___ attaches the inferior portion of the gonad to the future scrotumgubernaculum
____ Opening: at the level of T6. located in the central tendon and gives passage to IVC, right phrenic nerve and lymphatic vesselsCaval
____ Opening: At the level of T10 and surrounded by the right crus (external esophageal sphincter). Gives passage to esophagus and gastric nerves (right and left vagus)Esophageal
____ Opening: At the level of T12, behind the diaphragm and gives passage to thoracic duct, Azygose vein, and descending aorta from right to leftAortic

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