robbypowell's version from 2015-10-06 01:49

Vertebral Column

Features of Vertebrae in different regions
Question Answer
describe the shape and direction of the CERVICAL region of the spinal columnConcave Backward (develops by 3mo)
describe the shape and direction of the THORACIC region of the spinal columnConcave Forward (develops by 3mo)
describe the shape and direction of the LUMBAR region of the spinal columnConcave Backward (develops by 9-12mo)
Weight born by the back increases from ____ to _____ regionCervical < Thoracic < Lumbar
Abnormal spinal curvature resulting from increased posterior curvature (aka Hunchback)Kyphosis
What is Kyphosis?"hunchback" abnormal spinal curvature with increased Post curvature
What is Lordosis?Increased anterior convexity of Lumbar region of spinal cord
What causes Kyphosis?Erosion (due to OSTEOPOROSIS) of anterior part of one or more vertebrae
What is Scoliosis?increased Lateral curvature in thoracic region of spine
What is the Unique bony feature of C2?(Axis) Odontoid process
What vertebra is Atlas? Axis?Atlas: C1; Axis: C2
What vertebra have Transverse Foramina?C1-C6
What vertebrae have Articular facets on the upper on lower?T1-T9
What vertebrae have Absent lower facet from the Vertebral body and absent articular facet from The transverse processT10-T12
T10-T10 have Absent ___ ___ from the Vertebral body and absent ___ ____ from The transverse processLower Facet; Articular Facet
Each rib articulates with the corresponding Vertebra and vertebra above Except rib _________, _________ & ___1, 11, & 12
Ribs 1, 11 & 12 articulate with which vertebrae?1, 11, & 12 (respectively)
Vertebrae in the ___ region are the Body weight bearing vertebrae.Lumbar
vertebrae in the ___ region are Largest in sizeLumbar
vertebrae in the ___ region have no articular facets on the body or transverse processLumbar
the ___ vertebrae are 5 fused segmentsSacral (form the sacrum)
The sacrum has _________ anterior and posterior sacral foramina to provide passages for the ventral and dorsal branches of the ____ nerves.4; Sacral nerves
Sacral hiatus in the back of sacrum provides exit to _________ and ____ nerve as well as the ___ ___S5; Coccygeal Nerve; Filum Terminale
5 types of joints of the vertebral columnJoints of BODIES, Joints of ARCHES, Craniovertebral (atlanto-axial and atlanto-occipital); Costo-vertebral; Sacro-iliac
What is the joint Between articular processes? (synovial)Zygapophyseal (Facet)
What is between vertebral bodies?Intervertebral discs
3 functions of Intervertebral discs?Bind bodies, provide mobility and stability simultaneously, shock absorption
Component of Intervertebral discs made of fibrocartilagenous layers that protects against herniation Annulus Fibrosis
Jelly like central material of Intervertebral discsNucleus Pulpous
The Nucleus Pulposis is ___% water80% water
Solid component of Nucleus Pulposis is 65% ____ & 17% type ___ collagen fibers65% proteoglycan; 17% Type2 collagen
This part of Nucleus pulposis traps and holds waterProteoglycan Aggrecans
6 Ligaments of vertebral columnAnt. Longitudinal, Post. Longitudinal, Intertransverse, Ligamentum Flavum, Supraspinous, Interspinous
Ligaments between the bony processes of vertebraeInterspinous ligaments
The ____ligament connects the tips of the spinous processes from the seventh cervical vertebra to the sacrum.Supraspinous
The ____ ____ is a ligament between vertebral processes that is adjacent to the spinal canal and is yellower in color due to elastinLigamentum Flavum
Flexion and extension are occurring primarily in the ___ and ___ regions of the vertebrae.Cervical & Lumbar
Bending forward is called ____Flexion
Bending backward is called ____Extension
Rotational movement of the vertebral column occur primarily in the ___ and ___ regionsCervical & Thoracic
The major segmental arteries of the thoracic regionPosterior intercostal arteries
The major segmental arteries of the abdomen lumbar arteries
The major segmental arteries of the pelvislateral and medial sacral arteries
The major segmental arteries of the neckVertebral arteries & Ascending cervical arteries
Important vascular feature for the spread of cancer into vertebral columnVenous Plexuses
Vertebral venous plexuses communicate through the ____ foramina with segmental veins in the ___ ___Intervertebral; Body wall
The zygapophysial joints innervated by articular branches of the ____ ____ of the spinal nervesPosterior Rami
Special boney features of Thoracic vertebrae are to articulate with the ____Ribs

Back Muscles

Question Answer
What are the 4 Superficial Extrinsic Back muscles?Trapezius, Latismus Dorsi, Levator Scapulae & Rhomboids (major & minor)
What is the nerve supply of Sup. Extrinsic back muscles except for Trapezius?Ventral Rami of cervical nerves
What is the nerve supply for Trapezius?Spinal Accessory nerve
What Intermediate Extrinsic back muscles are deep to rhomboids?Serratus Posterior Superior
What intermediate Extrinsic back muscles are deep to Latissimus?Serratus Posterior Inferior
2 superficial respiratory muscles designed to be proprioceptive for than motor in functionSerratus Posterior Superior & Inferior
Nerve Supply of Intermediate Extrinsic Back Muscles?Intercostal nerves (Superior by upper 4, Inferior by lower 4)
Nerve supply of Lattissimus Dorsi?Thoracodorsal N.
Nerve supply of Trapezius?Spinal Accessory N. (C3-C4)
Muscle whose action is Extension, Adduction and Medial rotation of the arm (swimming)Lattissmus Dorsi
Origin of Levator ScapulaeTransverse Processes of C1-C4
Insertion of Levator ScapulaeMedial border of Scapula
Nerve supply of Levator ScapulaeDorsal Scapular N. (C5); upper part C3 & C4
Origin of Rhomboideus MinorInferior Ligamentum Nuchae, since of C7 & T1
What muscles retract, elevate and rotate the scapula Inferiorly?Rhomboid (major & minor)
What is the Nerve supply of the Rhomboids?Dorsal Scapular N. (C5)
What are the 2 Superficial Intrinsic back muscles?Splenius Capitus & Splenius Cervicis
muscle group of the back which extends the vertebral column (bending the spine such that the head moves posteriorly while the chest protrudes anteriorly)Erector Spinae (Sacrospinalis)
Intrinsic Spinal Muscles are innervated by ___ ___ of spinal nervesPosterior Rami
What muscles are responsible for maintaining posture and controlling movements of the vertebral column?Intrinsic muscles of back
What muscles extend and laterally bend neck and head; rotate head to same side?Splenius muscles (Capitis & Cervicis)
Innervation of Splenius musclesDorsal Primary rami of C2-C6
What muscle extends and laterally bends the trunk, neck and head?Erector Spinae
What muscle runs from transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae to lesser trochanter of femur and creates flexion of the trunkPsoas Major
What muscle runs from iliac crest to the transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae and creates lateral flexion to the same side and extension of the trunk if both muscles (bilaterally) contract simultaneouslyQuadrature Lumborum


Extrinsic Muscles (Trapezius, Lattisimus Dorsi, Rhomboides, Levator Scapula, & Serratus Posterior)
Intrinsic Muscles (Semispinalis & Erector Spinae)

Clinical Correlation

Question Answer
Cause of back pain that results from imbalance between bone resorption and formationOsteoporosis
Cause of back pain that results from erosion of articular cartilages of weight bearing jointsOsteoarthritis
Back pain that is caused by A sudden heavy strain or increased pressure to the lower back is usually from ___ of ___ ___Herniation of Nucleus Pulpous
Herniated discs press the spinal nerve above or below?BELOW
Cause of back pain that results from chronic inflammation of spines and sacroiliac joints/genetic/associated with uveitis and urtheritisAnkylosing Spondylitis
Pain in the lower back and hip radiating down the back of the thigh into the legSciatica
Sciatica is often caused by a herniated ____ (region) Intervertebral disc that compresses and compromises ___ or ___ component of the Sciatic nerveLumbar; L5 or S1
This type of herniated disc results in pain or numbness may be felt in the shoulders, arms or chestCervical Prolapse
This type of herniated can result in sciatica... leg pain and other nerve-related symptoms, such as weakness, numbness in one legLower back Prolapse
___ ___ syndrome --> Weakness in both legs and the loss of bladder and/or bowel control. This is a serious problem that requires immediate medical helpCauda Equina syndrome
A positive Straight Leg test is what and means what?pain at 40 deg hip flexion or less; herniated disc
test where patient extends the neck and rotates and laterally bends the head toward the symptomatic side; an axial compression force is then applied by the examiner through the top of the patient's headSpurling's test
positive Spurling testRadiating pain down arm
golden standard of herniated disc imagingMRI
Most herniated discs heal on their own over time (one to six months) by a process called ____.Resorption
neural tube defect and failure of union of the laminae/spine during the first month of pregnancySpina Bifida
Spina Bifida where spinal cord nor does the meningeal membrane does not protrudeOcculta
Spina Bifida with herniation of only Meningeal covering but not spinal cordMeningococele
Spina Bifida with spinal nerve protrudingMeningomyelocele
T/F: Occlusal imbalances can lead to back painTrue (according to case in lecture)
How can brushing teeth exacerbate herniated disc pain? how is this treated?bacteria from mouth travel to disc; treated with ANTIBIOTICS
When are antibiotics an appropriate treatment for lower back pain?Herniated disc