SYS ANATOMY EXAM 2 - digestive

lunalovegood's version from 2015-11-07 03:22


First Stuff
Question Answer
ABDOMINAL CAVITY - boundaries?abdominal walls, diaphragm, pelvis
ABDOMINAL CAVITY - lined with?serous membrane (peritoneum)
ABDOMINAL CAVITY - contains?most digestive organs, most of the ureter's course, spleen, kidneys
Lines the inner surface of the abdominopelvic wall....parietal layer
Invests viscera like stomach and spleen...visceral layer
Is located between the visceral and parietal layers - contains serous fluid - no organs...peritoneal cavity
Organs are ___-abdominal, ___-peritoneal.intra-abdominal, extra-peritoneal (OH MY FUCKING GOD THIS IS TALKING ABOUT THE PERITONEAL CAVITY not INTRA-PERITONEAL LIKE IT SAYS ON THE SLIDE WHY CAN'T THEY USE MOTHERFUCKING WOOORDS AHHHHHHH! okay... SO stomach, liver, spleen, small intestine, transverse colon, appendix, pelvic colon, and tail of pancreas are INTRA-PERITONEAL and no organs are INTRA-PERITONEAL CAVITY. FUCK.)
Double layer of peritoneum fused together that extends to the organs from the posterior wall...mesentery (formed by invagination of periotoneum by an organ)
What does the mesentery do?provides support for organs and the vessels + nerves supplying the organs
Retroperitoneal organs adhere to the posterior abdominal wall and lose their peritoneum via __________.resorption (think kidneys, most of the pancreas, some of the small/large intestines)
The Greater and Lesser sacs of the peritoneum communicate via the...epiploic foramen (of Winslon)
Double layer of peritoneum connects an organ with ABDOMINAL WALL or OTHER ORGANPeriotoneal ligaments
Name 3 parts of the GREATER omentum.gastrophrenic, gastrosplenic, gastrocolic
Name 2 ligaments and 3 things the LESSER omentum contains.hepatogastric ligament, hepatoduodenal ligament, portal triad (hepatic artery, portal vein, common bile duct)
Peritoneal FOLDS carry ___ ___ to different organs.blood supply


Question Answer
The esophagus is _inches long and __cm in diameter.10 inches, 2cm
From the pharynx, the neck to the stomach is the _____ part.cervical
In the thorax is the ____ part and in the abdomen is the ____ part.thoracic, abdominal
Esophageal opening is in the muscular ____ ____ of the diaphragm.right crus
CERVICAL blood supplyInferior thyroid artery and vein
THORACIC bloody supplydescending aorta, azygos vein (systemic vein?)
ABDOMINAL blood supplyleft gastric artery and vein (portal circulation)
PROXIMAL end is ___ muscle.striated
MIDPORTION is ___ muscle.mixture of striated and smooth
DISTAL end is ___ muscle.smooth
Transition from esophageal mucosa to gastric mucosaZ-line or gastroesophageal junction


Question Answer
The liver develops inside the...ventral mesentery
The spleen and pancreas develop inside the ___ and ___ parts of the dorsal mesentery.cranial and dorsal parts
The ____ and _____ develop inside the cranial and dorsal parts of the dorsal mesentery.spleen, pancreas
During development, the stomach rotates 90 degrees to the ____ side.right
STOMACH ROTATION - right vagus becomes the ___ nerve and left vagus becomes ____ nerveposterior gastric nerve, anterior gastric nerve
STOMACH ROTATION - Name 4 things the ventral mesentery divides into.falciform ligament, gastrosplenic ligament, greater omentum lesser omentum
STOMACH ROTATION - The ventral mesentery becomes the falciform ligament between the ___ and ___.liver and anterior abdominal wall (Falcons eat liver and go to AA meetings)
STOMACH ROTATION - The ventral mesentery becomes the lesser omentum between the ___ and ____.liver and stomach (liver lesser om om om nom nom)
STOMACH ROTATION - The ventral mesentery becomes the gastrosplenic ligament between the ____ and ____.stomach and spleen (Gastro + splenic =D !!! )
STOMACH ROTATION - The ventral mesentery becomes MAINLY the greater omentum between the ____ and _____.stomach and pancreas (The Great Greek God Pancreas, God of the Food)


Question Answer
What prevents food/enzymes backflow from stomach to esophagus?cardiac sphincter
Proximal region of the stomachfundus
Begins digestion of proteins, mixes stomach contentsfundus
Central region of stomach, mixes contents and digests proteinsbody
Distal region of stomachpylorus
This CONTRACTS to empty materials from stomach to small intestinepylorus (pyloric sphincter there too)
Stomach mucosa is ___ ___ epitheliumsimple columnar
Stomach mucosa secretes ____ (alkaline, acidic) mucous.alkaline
Where are parietal (oxyntic) cells found mainly?fundus, body
Name 3 things parietal (oxyntic) cells secrete.H+, HCO-3, intrinsic factor (Are you intrinsically PARanoid of acid?)
Parietal (oxyntic) cells are found in ___ and ___ portion of gastric glands. Chief cells are found in the ____ part.upper and middle, basal
Name 2 things chief (zymogenic) cells secrete.pepsin, lipase (the Chief of Lips is always Peppy)
In the FUNDUS, enteroendocrine cells produce ___.serotonin (FUN! is HAPPY! Serotonin is HAPPY!)
In the PYLORUS, enteroendocrine cells produce ....gastrin (G cells) and somatostatin (D cells)
Pylorus enteroendocrine cells - G cells make ____ and D cells make ____.gastrin, somatostatin
Name 3 stomach musculature.outer longitudinal, middle circular, inner oblique
What does gastrin do?Stimulates parietal cells to release H+ and HCO-3 to make HCl
What does somatostatin do?Stops gastrin, thus stops parietal cells from releasing H+ and HCO-3 for the HCl, lowers stomach acidityness
What increases surface area of the stomach?rugae (aid in breaking down food when stomach contracts)
Omental bursa aka...lesser sac
The stomach's arterial supply comes from the _________ ___ and branches.celiac trunk
Which arteries anastomose around the LESSER CURVATURE?right and left gastric arteries
Which arteries anastomose around the GREATER CURVATURE?right and left gastro-omental arteries (aka gastroepiploic arteries because once again somebody couldn't pick just one GODDAMN name)
The fundus and upper body receive blood from which arteries?short and posterior gastric arteries
T/F - The veins of the stomach parallel the arteries in position and course.True
All gastric veins finally drain into the...portal vein
Gastric parasympathetic innervation?from medulla via vagus nerves
Gastric sympathetic innervation?celiac ganglia T5-T9
Name the 4 lymph nodes stomach lymphatics drain to.gastric, pancreaticosplenic, pyloric, and pancreatic-duodenal lymph nodes (Py Pan - pan duo gas)
Lesser omentum - the right border is called...the free border
What is in the portal triad?common bile duct, hepatic artery, portal vein
What is in the lesser omentum's free border?portal triad (CBD, HA, PV)
The lesser omentum has a free border and a ____ border.gastric
The lesser omentum's gastric border contains what?right and left gastric VESSELS
The greater omentum contains what?gastroepiploic VESSELS
The gastrosplenic ligament contains what?short gastric VESSELS
Where is stomach carcinoma normally located?pyloric region or lower body, CLOSE TO pyloric lymph nodes
___% of peptic ulcers are located in the stomach or in first part duodenum.98 (4:1 ratio duodenum to stomach)
Peptic ulcers affect about _________% of US males and _________% of US females. Mostly young adults.2% and 1.5% (my sister had them!)
H. pylori are responsible for ___% of duodenal and _________% of gastric ulcers.80% duodenal, 70% gastric ulcers
Gastric acid, pepsin, NSAIDs, alcohol, smoking, and H. pylori can all be causes of...peptic ulcers
If the posterior wall in pyloric region is eroded by a peptic ulcer, what can be affected?gastroduodenal artery


Question Answer
_________ inches long.10
Name 4 parts of the duodenum.first, second or descending, horizontal, ascending
First _________ inches, descending ___ inches, horizontal _________ inches, ascending _________ inches.2, 4, 3, 1
Which part has the opening of the hepatopancreatic duct and the accessory pancreatic duct?second/descending
The hepatopancreatic duct is the union of what 2 structures?pancreatic duct and common bile duct
The hepatopancreatic duct is specifically located at the ___ ___ ___ in the second part.major duodenal papilla
The accessory pacreatic duct is specifically located at the ___ ___ ___ in the second part.minor duodenal papilla
What is the blood supply?superior and inferior pancreatico-duodenal arteries
The superior pancreatico-duodenal artery is a branch of...gastroduodenal
The inferior pancreatico-duodenal artery is a branch of...superior mesenteric
Which part of the duodenum has peritoneal covering?first inch of the first part
What marks the division from duodenum to jejunum?suspensory ligament of duodenum (of TREITZ. WHY IS NOTHING EVER SPELLED CORRECTLY.)
Alk secretionssubmucus glands aka Brunner's glands


Jejunum or Ileum?
Question Answer
Simple arcadesjejunum
Long vasa rectajejunum
Clear window (less fat)jejunum
More arcadesileum
Short vasa rectaileum
Fuzzy window (more fat)ileum
Plicae circularis or Kerkling's valvesjejunum (prominent mucosal folds)
Peyer's patchesileum (prominent lymphatic nodules and aggregation)
Rich in intestinal villi and microvillijejunum


Question Answer
Absorptive cells secrete...disaccharidase and peptidase
Paneth cells secrete ...lysozymes (bactericidal effect)
Blood supply of the small intestine?Ileal and jejunal branches of superior mesenteric artery
Small intestine veins drain?into the superior mesenteric vein then to portal vein
The root mesentery contains...ileal and jejunal branches of superior mesenteric artery
The mesentery root is ___ inches long.6
The mesentery free border is ___ meters long.6
What contains both the jejunum and ileum?mesentery free border
If the vitellointestinal duct doesn't go away in fetal life, you can have ...Meckel's diverticulum (AGAIN WITH THE SPELLING ERRORS WHY)
Meckel's Diverticulum - 2% of people, 2 ___ long, 2 feet from _____ _____, 2 kinds of ____ _____, and the 2 complications are ____ and ____.inches, ileocecal valve, ectopic tissue (gastric and pancreatic), bleeding, perforation


Large Intestine
Question Answer
____ ____ to anusileocecal valve
___ meters1.5 meters
3 ribbons of longitudinal smooth muscleteniae coli
Pocket-like segments of large intestinehaustra
Fat-filled appendages of visceral peritoneumepiploic appendages
T/F - The cecum, ascending colon, right colic flexure, transverse colon, left colic flexure, descending colon, pelvic colon, rectum and anal canal are all components of the large intestine.True
Blood supply for cecum, ascending colon, and right 2/3 of transverse colon.colic arteries from superior mesenteric artery
Blood supply for left 1/3 of transverse colon, descending colon, pelvic colon, rectum, and upper 1/2 of anal canal.colic arteries from inferior mesenteric artery
Colic veins drain into the...portal vein


Question Answer
RIGHT - UPPERRt Hypochondrium
MIDDLE - UPPEREpigastrium
MIDDLE - LOWERHypogastrium
LEFT - UPPERLt Hypochondrium
Vertical lines?midclavicular planes
Horizontal lines?subcostal, intertubercular (subcostal is above)


Guts, guts, guts!
Question Answer
Proximal 1/2 of duodenumforegut
Spleenforegut (WHAT DOES THE SPLEEN DO!)
Distal 1/2 of duodenummidgut
Ascending colonmidgut
Rt 2/3 of transverse colonmidgut
Lt 1/3 of transverse colonhindgut
Descending colonhindgut
Pelvic colonhindgut
Upper 1/2 of anal canalhindgut
Vagus?foregut, midgut PARA
Pelvic Splanchnic nerve?hindgut PARA
Greater Splanchnic nerve?foregut SYMPA
Lesser Splanchnic nerve?midgut SYMPA
Lumbar Splanchnic nerve?hindgut SYMPA


Question Answer
Small Intestinecompletely
Transverse coloncompletely
Pelvic Coloncompletely
Tail of pancreascompletely
Ascending and descending colonpartially
Most of the duodenumpartially
Pancreaspartially (most of it is retroperitoneal)
Most of the cecumpartially
Great vessels and their primary branchesretroperitoneal


Question Answer
T/F - Intermittent abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation due to alter mobility of the gut.T
T/F - Gut 5-hydroxytryptamin is involved.T
T/F - IBS accounts for 50% of patient visits to gastroenterologists.T
T/F - Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are IB diseases.T
Colon cancer - adenocarcinoma - _________% in cecum and ascending colon, ___% in sigmoid colon, ___% in rectum and 25% somewhere else.25, 25, 25 (peak incidence is 60-70 yo)
Name 4 risk factors for colon cancer.Family history, high fat diet, age, and IB diseases
Twisting of the sigmoid colon. Can strangle vessels and cause necrosis.volvuvus
Pancreatitis can spread to the transverse colon via the..transverse mesocolon


Always Ask for Directions
Question Answer
ANTERIOR to epiploic foramenhepatic artery, common bile duct, portal vein
POSTERIOR to epiploic foramenIVC
Pharynx is at level ...C6
In the diaphragm, the esophagus is ____ of the midline.left
The esophagus in the diaphragm is at the level of ...T10
DEVELOPING Stomach ANTERIOR BORDER attached to ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL by ___ ___ventral mesentery
DEVELOPING Stomach POSTERIOR BORDER attached to POSTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL by ___ ___.dorsal mesentery
DEVELOPING Stomach has RIGHT SURFACE with ___ ___ and LEFT SURFACE with _________ ___.right vagus, left vagus
STOMACH ROTATION right vagus becomes...posterior (posterior gastric nerve)
STOMACH ROTATION left vagus becomes...anterior (anterior gastric nerve)
Name 7 structures that are BEHIND the stomach, separated by the lesser sac (omental bursa)1) spleen 2) pancreas 3) splenic artery 4) transverse colon and mesocolon 5) left kidney 6) left supra renal gland 7) diaphragm
Celiac ganglia giving stomach sympathetic innervation.T5-T9
The lesser omentum extends from ____ to _____.liver to the lesser curvature of stomach
The greater omentum goes from the ____ and then loops back up to attach to the ______ and RANDOM FUCKING ADDITIONAL FACT it forms the ___ ___ and ____ wall of ___ ___.greater curvature of the stomach, transverse colon, inferior recess and posterior wall of the lesser sac
The gastrosplenic ligament goes from ___ to ___.upper part of the greater curvature of the stomach to the spleen
The root mesentery extends from the ___ to the ___.duodenojejunal flexure to the ileocecal junction

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