SY0-401 pt6

suttonjs2's version from 2016-04-29 21:12

Glossary - R

Question Answer
random access memory (RAM)Short-term storage memory, physically residing in the computer on memory chips. Because computer applications use RAM in their processing, the amount of RAM in a computer is a major determinant of how well the computer works.
rakingA technique used by intruders to circumvent a lock. For example, a pick is used to circumvent a pin tumbler lock.
Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID)Minimizes the loss of data when problems occur in accessing data on a hard disk. RAID is a fault-tolerant disk configuration in which part of the physical storage contains redundant information about data stored on the disks. Standardized strategies of fault tolerance are categorized in RAID levels 0–5. Each level offers various mixes of performance, reliability, and cost. The redundant information enables regeneration of data if a disk or sector on a disk fails or if access to a disk fails. RAID 0 has no redundant information and, therefore, provides no fault tolerance. RAID 5 is also known as disk striping with parity.
RegistryA central database of all software and hardware settings on a Windows system.
Registry EditorA Microsoft tool (REGEDIT.EXE or REGEDT32.EXE) to view and modify the Registry.
Remote Access ServiceThe dial-up service running on a server that enables users to access the network remotely by telephone lines.
Remote Procedure Call (RPC)An IPC mechanism used by programmers to create an application consisting of multiple procedures—some run on the local computer, and others run on remote computers over a network. Also, a request sent to a computer on the network by a program, requesting the computer to perform a task.
Request for Comments (RFC)One of the documents that publish the standards for TCP/IP.
reservationAn IP address that is reserved for a specific DHCP client. RFC See Request for Comments.
RJ-45The RJ-45 connector is used with twisted-pair cables. It looks like a telephone connector but is wider. There are eight pins; hence, there are eight wires. Ethernet implementations can use either four or all eight wires. If only four wires are used, the pins you should know are 1, 2, 3, and 6. An RJ-45 patch cable can be plugged directly into the back of a twisted-pair network adapter, or less commonly, it can be attached to an external transceiver. The patch cable usually runs to a wall receptacle, which is wired back to a patch panel and ultimately back to a wiring hub.
root(1) The top level of a directory structure, above which no references can be made. (2) The administrative account found in UNIX/Linux.
ROUTEA command that can be used to add, modify, delete, and display route information for one or all interfaces. Used to configure network routing tables.
routerA device that connects more than one physical network, or segments of a network. As packets reach the router, the router reads the network address and forwards them either to their destination or to another router.
routingThe process of forwarding a packet from one segment to another segment until it arrives at its final destination. A router makes decisions as to where to send network packets by looking at the network addresses of the packets it receives before passing them on.
routing tableThe list of available routes known by the router. Used by routers to determine whether data is destined for the local network or not.

Glossary - S

Question Answer
scalableHaving the capacity to change with the network. As requirements change, a scalable network can grow or shrink to fit the requirements.
scriptUsed to describe programs, usually those written in an interpreted language, as opposed to a compiled language.
secret key cryptographyEncrypts and decrypts messages using a single secret key called a bulk encryption key in the Key Management Server. Two examples of secret key cryptography are DES and CAST.
Secure Shell (SSH)A protocol that uses a secure channel to connect a server and a client.
Secure Socket Layer (SSL)A certificate-based protocol used to encrypt communication between the Application and Transport layers. Security Access Manager (SAM) database A database that maintains all user, group, and workstation accounts in a secure database along with their passwords and other attributes. Operates at the Transport layer (OSI Layer 4). Two possible session key lengths: 40 bit and 128 bit.
Security Accounts Manager (SAM)A set of routines responsible for managing the directory service database.
Security ControlA security measure put in place to protect a company asset. Examples of security controls may be a fence around the perimeter of a facility, or a firewall to protect network resources from persons on the Internet.
security descriptorsDescribe the security attributes for an object and have the following parts: Owner security ID (identifies the owner of the object, which enables that person to change the permissions for the object); security ID of the primary group (only used by the POSIX subsystem); discretionary access control list (identifies the groups and users who are allowed and denied access); and the system access control list (specifies which events get logged in the security log file).
Security ID (SID)Uniquely identifies each user, workstation, and server on the network. Security Incident A security incident is an event that occurs that causes security concern.
Security ReferenceMonitor Component of the Windows operating system that is responsible for checking access on objects, manipulating rights, and generating audit messages.
Security Set Identifier (SSID)The name of a wireless network. segment A portion of the network that carries network broadcasts. server A computer that provides shared resources to network users.
server alertUsed to send notification messages to users or computers. Server alerts are generated by the system and relate to server and resource use. They warn about security and access problems, user session problems, printer problems, and server shutdown because of power loss when the UPS service is available.
Service Level Agreement (SLA)An agreement between a company and a vendor in which the vendor agrees to provide certain functions for a specified period.
server mirroringDuplicating a complete server to reduce the demand on the main server.
service packA program that provides new functionality, adds more capability, or corrects a bug in an earlier release. Service packs provide software updates in between full releases of the program.
servicesA service is a discrete unit of functionality provided by the Windows operating system.
sessionsA session is a reliable dialog between two computers. Because connection- oriented services can provide reliable communication, they are used when two computers need to communicate in a session. Sessions are maintained until the two computers decide that they are finished communicating. A session is just like a telephone call. You set up a telephone call by dialing (handshaking), speaking to the other person (exchanging data), saying “Goodbye,” and hanging up when finished.
SFTPA file transferring protocol that uses SSH for security.
shareA setting to make resources such as printers, CD-ROM drives, and directories available to users on the network.
shellA program that provides communication between a server and a client or a user and an operating system.
shielded twisted-pair (STP)A twisted-pair cable that has foil-wrap shielding between the conducting strands and the outer insulation.
shimmingA technique in which an authorized user disassembles a lock without the use of an operating key.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)A protocol used to send mail over the Internet.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Service Extensions (ESMTP)ESMTP is an extension to the SMTP protocol. Systems that support ESMTP support a richer command set.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)An Internet standard for monitoring and configuring network devices. An SNMP network is composed of management systems and agents.
snifferA network monitoring tool that analyzes the traffic on the network and can help solve problems that are infrastructure related.
static entriesEntries that are manually added. This could apply to statically configured routers where the routing table is updated manually by the network administrator, or the ARP cache can be manually updated.
static routingA configuration method used by early routers. It required programming exactly which networks could be routed between which interfaces, especially if there were many network interfaces.
stripe sets without parityLike volume sets, except they provide performance gains. They can combine 2 to 32 areas of free space as a single volume. However, the free space must be on different hard disks, and each hard disk must contain the same amount of free space that you want to use for the size of the stripe set.
striping dataRAID 5 uses a method of striping data across several hard disks, with parity information also included. This parity information is striped across the drives rather than being stored on a single hard disk.
subnet maskDetermines which bits in the IP address apply to the network ID and which bits are part of the host ID.
subnettingThe breaking up of the IP address range into multiple IP address ranges.
switchA network device that is similar to a hub but only forwards the data to the port on the switch that the destination address is connected to. Switches are used instead of hubs to increase performance on the network.
symmetric cryptographyBoth the sender and the receiver use a single key to encrypt and decrypt data.
system administratorManages the network. It is this person’s responsibility to ensure that network functions are running smoothly; for example, that backups are complete, network traffic is running smoothly, and drive space is available when needed.
system partitionIn Windows, where the hardware-specific files needed to boot are located. The active partition is the system partition on Intel-based computers.


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