SY0-401 pt5

suttonjs2's version from 2016-05-04 22:39

Glossary - M

Question Answer
mandatory logonWindows uses mandatory logon to force the users to log on before it grants access to the system.
mantrapAn area between two doors, where the second door will not open till the first door is closed. A mantrap is designed to prevent someone from sneaking into a facility behind you after you unlock the door.
Masters ParadiseA back door application.
Media Access Control (MAC)The MAC layer is a sublayer of the data link layer and determines which computer may speak and when.
Media Access Layeraddress The Media Access Layer address, or hardware address, is a 12-digit hexadecimal number consisting of digits 0 through 9 and letters A through F. It is a hexadecimal number assigned to the network card. The address consists of two pieces: The first signifies the vendor it comes from; the second is the serial number unique to that card. For the exam you will not need to know how these numbers break down; you just need to know what the address is.
megabits per second (Mbps)Used to measure throughput or communication speed. Mbps is a communications rate of 1,048,576 bits per second.
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)A mutual agreement between two parties to perform a common action or relationship. If well-defined legal elements are included, the MOU is considered binding. MOUs are generally loose agreements and therefore may not have strict guidelines in place to protect sensitive data between the two entities.
memoryPhysical memory is RAM (random-access memory); virtual memory is hard disk space acting as though it were additional RAM.
member serverA Windows server that is part of the domain and does not have Active Directory installed.
Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (MS-CHAP)A form of the Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol. It uses the same type of encryption methodology as the parent protocol, but is slightly more secure. The server sends a challenge to the originating host, which must return the user name and an MD-4 hash of the challenge string, the session ID, and the MD-4 hashed password.
mirroringDuplicating information to another hard disk. If one hard drive fails, the other hard drive is immediately available with the very same information. modem See modulator/demodulator.
modulator/demodulator (modem)A device used to translate digital signals from the computer into analog signals that can travel across a telephone line. Also known as data circuit-terminating equipment. See also analog modem; external modem; internal modem.
most significant bitWhen a computer reads the first bit of a value, the bit at the far left, it is using the most significant bit. When a computer reads the last bit, on the far right, it is using the least significant bit. Also known as the high-order bit.
multihomed systemA computer that is configured with more than one network adapter. Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) See Non-MIME.
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) attachmentA type of Internet message. MIME messages are made up of headers and bodies. MIME is the standard method of sending and receiving messages across the Internet, regardless of mail server type.

Glossary - N

Question Answer
NBTSTATA utility used to troubleshoot name resolution between NetBIOS names and the IP address.
NessusA network vulnerability scanner.
NetBTNetBIOS over TCP/IP. A software standard and naming convention to use NetBIOS services over the TCP/IP protocol.
NetBusBack door application.
NETSTATA TCP/IP utility for relating protocol statistics and current active connections.
network access controlAlso known as NAC, a technology that evaluates the state of a system before allowing it to access the network. network adapter See network interface card.
Network Address Translation (NAT)NAT is a service that allows requests from private addresses to be translated to a public address—thus hiding internal network resources.
Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS)A networked extension to the PC BIOS. NetBIOS enables I/O requests to be sent and received from a remote computer. Commonly called an application program interface (API).
network infrastructureThe physical equipment that hooks computers into a network. This includes the cables, hubs, routers, and software used to control a network.
network interface card (NIC)Also called an adapter card, interface card, or media access card. It is installed in a computer to enable it to communicate with other computers over a network. A NIC changes the parallel signals inside the computer into serial signals that go over the network cable.
network layerLayer 3 of the OSI model that is responsible for logical addressing and routing.
network mapA detailed map of the network. Includes an inventory of machines and other hardware, a map of cable layout, and other information to document the network.
Network MonitorA Windows tool that “sniffs out” packets on the network and helps diagnose any problems concerning protocols. As of 2012, Network Monitor is succeeded by Microsoft Message Analzyer.
network segmentationA bridge is a simple way to accomplish network segmentation. Placing a bridge between two different segments of the network decreases the amount of traffic on each of the local networks. Although this does accomplish network segmentation, most network administrators opt to use routers or switches. Bridges segment the network by MAC addresses. When one of the workstations connected to Network 1 transmits a packet, the packet is copied across the bridge as long as the packet’s destination is not on Network 1. A bridge uses a bridge routing table to calculate which MAC addresses are on which network.
New Technology File System (NTFS)A secure file system developed for Windows. NTFS is transaction-oriented, enables permissions to be assigned to both files and directories, and has the capability to compress files.
NIDSNetwork-based intrusion detection system. A NIDS is used to monitor network traffic and alert you of suspicious traffic.
NIPSNetwork-based intrusion prevention system. A NIPS is used to monitor network traffic and take corrective action once it discovers suspicious traffic.
nodeEach device on a network is an individual node. It can be a workstation, a printer, a router, or a file server.
normal backupA normal backup, also called full backup, copies all selected files and marks each file as having been backed up.
NSLOOKUPThe NSLOOKUP command is a TCP/IP utility used to troubleshoot DNS name resolution problems.

Glossary - O

Question Answer
objectIn Windows, just about everything is an object. A file is an object, and so is a window. Objects have a type, various attributes, and a set of operations. They can be physical devices (such as a COM port) or they can be abstract (such as a thread). Windows controls access to objects.
offline backupsBackups that are kept offline. They are removed from the operation of the server and require the medium, usually tape, to be loaded in order to restore.
offline storageTape backups are called offline storage, which means the data is copied to tape cartridges stored external to the computer, and the data is not readily accessible. The data must be copied from the tapes back to the hard disk to be accessible.
off-site storageA place in a separate location from the file server, used to store backup tapes. A complete backup should always be kept off-site.
online backupsBackups that are stored online so that they are immediately available.
Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP)An Internet protocol that uses HTTP to communicate with the CA and check the status on a certificate. Designed as an alternative to the CRL.
Open Systems Interconnect (OSI)The Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model is a group of standards for network hardware and software. This is the most common network model used in PC networks and consists of seven layers: application, presentation, session, transport, network, data link, and physical.

Glossary - P

Question Answer
packetA small, manageable piece of data that is transmitted over the network as a whole. The packet must include a header section, a data section, and, in most cases, a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) section, also called a trailer.
Packet Internet Groper (PING)A utility for verifying IP-level connectivity.
partitionA logical division of a physical disk that is treated as though it were a separate hard disk. After partitioning the hard disk, you need to decide which partition will be the system partition and which will be the active partition. See also active partition and system partition.
pass-through authenticationOccurs when your credentials are not in the local directory service database.
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP)An authentication protocol in which the client authenticates itself to a server by passing the user name and password to it. The server then compares this information to its password store. Because the password is passed in clear text, this is not recommended in an environment where security concerns are an issue.
penetration testingA type of security testing that involves the tester using hacking techniques to compromise a system in order to determine if the system is secure or not.
Performance MonitorA utility that tracks the usage of resources by the system components and applications and provides performance information about the network to help locate bottlenecks, determine which resources are too taxed, and plan upgrades to the system’s capacity.
permissionsPermissions are assigned to users on a resource such as a file or printer. A permission decides on someone’s level of access to that resource.
platformA type of computer system. For example, Intel x86 and UNIX are platforms.
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)An Internet standard enabling multiple protocols, such as NetBEUI and IPX, to be encapsulated within IP datagrams and transmitted over public backbones such as the Internet. PPTP enables the secure transfer of data from a remote client to a private server by creating a multiprotocol virtual private network (VPN).
port numbersPreassigned TCP/IP port numbers on the server (although they can be changed). They are preassigned so that they can expect traffic on a corresponding port relating to the service that is using that port. Values less than 1024 are known as “well- known ports.”
port securityA feature on most switches that allows you to configure a port on a switch to only allow connections from systems with specific MAC addresses.
Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX)A standard developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) for file naming and identification based on UNIX. In order to be POSIX compliant, the software must fulfill certain requirements, such as case-sensitive filenames, hard links, and additional time stamping.
Post Office Protocol (POP)POP is the protocol for downloading mail from the mail server to the client. A POP3 mail server holds the mail in a maildrop until the workstation is ready to receive it.
print serverControls network printing and services printing requests. Print servers can be hardware devices or a software solution.
propertyA characteristic of an object. For example, a user object has a City property that describes the city that the user is from.
protocolA set of rules governing formatting and interaction that enables machines to communicate across a network. Windows supports several protocols, including TCP/IP, IPSEC, and PPTP, to name a few.
protocol analyzerAlso known as a packet sniffer, a protocol analyzer is used to monitor network traffic.
proxy serverA local server between the client workstation and the Internet. A proxy server provides security, remedies the need for each workstation to have a direct connection to the Internet, and enables several computers to use a single Internet connection because the proxy server accesses the Internet on behalf of the client.
public key cryptographyConsists of a public key and a private key. The public key is given freely to anyone who needs it, and the private key is kept secret by the keys’ owner.
public wireless networkA public data network operated by a third party that receives a monthly fee from users in exchange for providing wireless data service.


SY0-401 pt1
SY0-401 pt2
SY0-401 pt3
SY0-401 pt4
SY0-401 pt5
SY0-401 pt6
SY0-401 pt7
SY0-401 pt8