SY0-401 pt4

suttonjs2's version from 2016-05-04 20:31

Glossary - H

Question Answer
handshakingConnection-oriented services must ensure that data is sent reliably across the network. Handshaking takes place at the beginning of a communication session. During handshaking, the two computers determine the rules for communication, such as transmission speed and which ports to use. Handshaking also determines the proper way to terminate the session when finished. This ensures that communication ends in an orderly manner.
HIDSHost-based intrusion detection system. A HIDS is used to monitor activity on a system and alert you of any suspicious activity.
home directoryAn option for a user account that can give the user an accessible place to store files.
host IDThe portion of the 32-bit address that identifies the device on a TCP/IP network.
HOSTS fileIn early TCP/IP networks, all known hostnames and their associated IP addresses were stored in a simple text file called HOSTS. In most UNIX installations, the HOSTS file is located in the /etc directory and is also commonly referred to as /etc/HOSTS. The HOSTS file contained one line for each IP address and at least one associated name. The HOSTS file design allowed multiple names for the same IP address. So, HOSTS contains mappings of remote hostnames to IP addresses. The HOSTS file provides a static lookup of a hostname for the associated IP address.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)HTTP is the protocol used on the Internet to allow clients to request web pages from web servers and allow for client interaction with those web servers. HTTP is a stateless protocol, meaning that the web servers are not aware of what a client has or has not requested and cannot track users who have requested specific content. This system does not allow for good interaction with the web server, but does allow for retrieving the HTML pages stored on web sites.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol, Secure (HTTPS)HTTPS allows you to connect to a web site and receive and send content in an encrypted format using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). HTTPS is most commonly used on e-commerce sites to allow you to send your personal information without worrying that an Internet hacker is viewing this information, especially credit card numbers and other confidential data. You can determine when HTTPS is being used because the address of the web site starts with https:// and not http://, which is the regular HTTP protocol. Another sign that HTTPS is in use: In Internet Explorer, a lock appears in the status bar of a page. HTTPS is not used for an entire e- commerce site because the encryption and decryption processes slow the connection time, so only pages containing personal information use HTTPS.

Glossary - I

Question Answer
impersonationA technique for a server process to access objects that it doesn’t have permissions to. If the client process has proper access permissions, the server process impersonates the client process in order to access the object.
incremental backupBacks up all the files that have been changed since the last backup and clears the archive bit.
inherited permissionA permission inherited from the parent folder for a file or folder. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) A large and respected professional organization that is also active in defining standards.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11The IEEE 802.11 standard that addresses wireless networking. This standard includes the WAP devices and the wireless NICs that are used to send and receive broadcasts from the cell or WAP device. The WAPs and wireless NICs can be set to use different frequencies to allow for cell overlap. This technology does not include the same technology used by cell phones to manage movement of PCs or mobile devices. The wireless NIC is set to a specific frequency and must be changed manually to be able to communicate with another cell. This means that a PC cannot be moved from one cell area to another without changing frequency,unless for some reason the cells operate on the same frequency and have no overlap of coverage area.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.1xA wireless authentication standard that uses external authentication services such as RADIUS.
Interactive modeInteractive mode is used when you have more than one item in the DNS database you will be querying. Interactive mode will allow you to enter a command-line state that will keep prompting you for more commands until you type exit at the NSLOOKUP command prompt to return to a standard DOS command prompt and exit the NSLOOKUP utility.
Interconnection Security Agreement (ISA)An agreement established between organizations that own and operate connected systems to document the technical requirements of the connection. An ISA can also be used to ensure both parties have a clear understanding of the controls needed to protect the data.
interferenceNoise that disturbs the electrical signals sent across network cables.
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)ICMP is the protocol in TCP/IP that enables systems on a TCP/IP network to share status and error information.
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)The group responsible for the operation, management, and evolution of the Internet. The steering committee of the IETF is known as the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).
Internet Information Service (IIS)Microsoft’s web server product. IIS provides a full- featured SMTP server, an FTP server, and an HTTP server.
Internet layerThe TCP/IP layer that is responsible for handling the communication from one computer to another computer. It accepts a request to send data from the transport layer. The Internet layer consists of two protocols: the Internet Protocol (IP) and the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP).
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)IMAP is another protocol similar to POP that allows clients to retrieve messages from a mail server. (IMAP is on its fourth iteration, IMAP4.) IMAP allows e-mail retrieval for the purpose of storing the mail somewhere other than the mail server. IMAP can be used with Microsoft Outlook to retrieve e-mail and store it in a data file on the local PC Internet Protocol (IP) A common protocol that sets up the mechanism for transferring data across the network. Provides packet delivery for all other protocols within the TCP/IP suite.
Internet Protocol (IP) addressUniquely identifies a computer on the network. It is 32 bits long, with four octets separated by dots. This number is then converted to binary and used as a unique identifier.
Internet Protocol CONFIG (IPCONFIG)A command-line tool to view and troubleshoot TCP/IP settings.
Internet Protocol Security (IPSEC)A security protocol designed to encrypt IP traffic and perform authentication services.
internetworkA network of networks, such as the Internet. Repeaters, bridges, and routers are devices used to link individual LANs together to form larger internetworks. See also repeater, bridge, and router.
Intrusion Detection System (IDS)Detects the intrusion and logs the intrusion or notifies the appropriate personnel.
Intrusion Prevention System (IPS)Detects network intrusion attempts and controls intruder access to the network.

Glossary - K

Question Answer
kernelAlso called microkernel, refers to the core code in an operating system. This is the most important part of the operating system and is responsible for all functions on the system, such as creating, managing, and scheduling threads.
Kernel ModeAlso called Privileged Mode, the Kernel Mode has direct access to the hardware. Some components of Windows that used to run as User Mode components now run as Kernel Mode components. These are the Windows Manager, GDI, and graphics device drivers.
Key Distribution Center (KDC)During the use of the Kerberos protocol, the Key Distribution Center (KDC) stores, distributes, and maintains both cryptographic session keys and secret keys. The master key is used to exchange the session keys. The keys are automatically distributed to the communicating client and the server. The KDC also provides the authentication services for the users. The client requests resource access through the KDC. As a response to the request, the KDC generates a session key that is a combination of the secret keys of the client and the server. The session key is decrypted by both the client and the server to successfully authenticate to each other and to initiate communication.
key escrowOccurs when you maintain a secured copy of a user's private to ensure that you can recover the lost key. In some cases, a third party may be selected to provide the key escrow service when the key is owned by one organization but is used by another. If a third party provides this service, it ensures that the organization that is using the key can still recover data if the organization that owns the key goes out of town. Key escrow is a primary concern in cryptography and in a public key infrastructure (PKI). Key escrow is required when implementing a PKI if data loss is unacceptable.

Glossary - L

Question Answer
lagThe slowing of network performance usually caused by increased demand for available bandwidth.
lease durationThe lease duration specifies how long a DHCP client can use an IP address before it must renew it with the DHCP server. This duration can be set for an unlimited period or for a predetermined period. You have the option of configuring a scope to reserve a specific IP address for a DHCP client or even for a system on the network that is not DHCP enabled.
least significant bitWhen a computer reads the last bit of a value, it is known as the least significant bit. When a computer reads the first bit of a value, it is using the most significant bit.
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)Accesses and maintains distributed directory information services over an Internet Protocol (IP) network. Uses TCP 389 and LDAP with SSL or TLS uses TCP 636. Layer 7 protocol.
LMHOSTS fileA text file that resides on the hard drive of the client and helps map NetBIOS names to IP addresses.
loadThe amount of data present on the network. Also known as network traffic.
local area network (LAN)Consists of any two or more computers joined to communicate within a small area, usually not larger than a single building. See also virtual local area network.
local groupsGroups located in the local SAM database of a Windows system that are used to assign permission to resources on that system.
Local Security AuthorityThe heart of the Windows security subsystem. It creates security access tokens, authenticates users, and manages the local security policy.
loopback addressAny address that starts with 127.x.x.x and is used to verify that the TCP/IP software stack has been loaded and is functional on the system.


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SY0-401 pt4
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SY0-401 pt7
SY0-401 pt8