SVM1 Histo Quiz 2

jellyskelly00's version from 2017-11-17 13:12

Section 1

Question Answer
Sections of the LipsExternal Integument; Internal Mucosa
Characteristics of the Muco-Cutaneous Junctiondevoid of hair follicles; thicker epidermis
Mucosa Characteristicslined by stratified squamous
Mucosa Epithelial Variations in SpeciesRuminants & Horses - keratinized; carnivores, pigs - nonkeratinized
Labial Glandsserous or seromucous in propria submucosa
Tunica Muscularisskeletal muscle - orbicularis oris

Section 2

Question Answer
Sections of the CheeksOuter skin, middle muscle, inner mucosa
Characteristics of the Mucosastratified squamous - may or may not be keratinized
Species Variations of Mucosaruminants - mucosa studded with conical buccal papillae
Buccal Glandslocated in propria submucosa - serous, mucous, seromucous

Section 3

Question Answer
Key Characteristic of Hard Palate Mucosarugae - transverse ridges
Characteristics of the Mucosastratified squamous KERATINIZED
Propria Submucosa Compositioncapillaries, collagen and reticular fibers
Palatine Glandsmucous, seromucous in CAUDAL PORTION of hard palate
Species Variationsdental pad- heavily keratinized stratified squamous over thick, dense irregular CT

Section 4

Question Answer
Soft Palate Epitheliumstratified squamous
Propria Submucosabranched, tubuloacinar glands; mucous and seromucous
Palatine Glandsmucous, seromucous
Species Variations - Palatine Tonsilsin pigs and horses
Palatine Muscleslongitudinal skeletal muscle

Section 5

Question Answer
Tongue Epitheliumstratified squamous - keratinized on dorsal aspect
Mucosahigh in capillaries and arteriovenouus anastomoses for thermoregulation
Intrinsic Lingual muscleslongitudinal, transverse, perpendicular
Lingual Glandsseromucous between muscle fibers

Section 6

Question Answer
Lingual Papillae CategoriesMechanical and Gustatory
Mechanical PapillaeFiliform, conical, lenticular
Gustatory PapillaeFungiform, vallate, foliate
Nerve Fibers Associated with Gustatory Cellsnon-myelinated afferent nerve fibers (taste receptors)
Epithelial Variations between Mechanical and Gustatory PapillaeMechanical stratified squamous KERATINIZED; Gustatory stratified squamous NONKERATINIZED

Section 7

Question Answer
Filiform Characteristicsslender, thread-like protrusions above the surface
Filiform Epitheliumkeratinized stratified squamous
Filiform Species Variations**well developed in ruminants and cats**; very fine in horses
Conical Papillae Characteristicslarger not highly keratinized
Conical Papillae Locationroot of tongue in dogs and cats and torus linguae or ruminants
Conical Papillae Species Variationcontain lymphatic core in pigs
Lenticular Papillae Characteristicsflattened, lens-shaped projection
Lenticular Papillae Locationtorus linguae of ruminants ONLY
Lenticular Papillae Epitheliumkeratinized stratified squamous with core dense irregular CT

Section 8

Question Answer
Fungiform Papillae Characteristicsmushroom-shaped
Fungiform Papillae Epitheliumnonkeratinized squamous epithelium
Fungiform Papillae Taste Bud Locationupper surface
Fungiform Papillae Taste Bud Species Differencessparse in horses and cattle, numerous in sheep and pig, abundant in carnivores and goats


Question Answer
Vallate Papillae Characteristicslarge, flattened surrounded by epithelium line sulcus
Vallate Papillae Locationslightly about lingual surface
Vallate Papillae Epitheliumstratified squamous non keratinized
Vallate Papillae Taste Buds Locationpapillary aspect of sulcus
Vallate Papillae Gustatory Glandsserous glands deep to sulcus


Question Answer
Foliate Papillae Characteristicsparallel folds
Foliate Papillae Locationcaudo-lateral margin of tongue
Foliate Papillae Epitheliumstratified squamous nonkeratinized
Foliate Papillae Taste Buds Locationsides of folds
Foliate Papillae Species Differencesabsent in ruminants, rudimentary in cats and withOUT taste buds
Taste Bud Characteristicscluster of spindle-shaped epithelial cells that extend from the basement membrane to a small opening - taste pore - at the epithelial surface
Taste Bud Cell Typessustentacular, gustatory, basal cells

Section 9

Question Answer
Special Lingual Structures and Associated SpeciesLyssa - carnivores; torus linguae - ruminants; dorsal lingual cartilage - horses
Lyssa Speciescarnivores
Torus Linguaeruminants
Dorsal Lingual Cartilagehorses
Lyssacord-like structure composed of white adipose tissue, skeletal muscles, BV and nerves, enclosed by dense irregular CT capsule
Torus Linguaelarge prominence on the caudal part of the dorsal surface of ruminant tongue
Dorsal Lingual Cartilagemid-dorsal fibroelastic cord with hyaline cartilage, skeletal muscle, and white adipose tissue

Section 10

Question Answer
Classification of Teethbrachydont and hypsodont
Characteristics of Brachydontshort, cease to grow after eruption is complete; crown (enamel), neck, root (cementum)
Characteristics of HypsodontNO crown or neck; cementum and enamel throughout entirety of teeth; presence of enamel invagination called infundibulum
Tooth CompositionEnamel, dentine Cementum
Enamel99% mineral
Enamel Producing Cellsameloblasts
Dentine70% mineral
Dentine Producing Cellsondontoblasts
Cementum66% mineral
Cementum Producing Cellscementocytes
Cementum Key Structures/FibersSharpey's Fibers - form peridontal ligament

Section 11

Question Answer
Major Salivary Glandsparotid, mandibular, sublingual, zygomatic
Minor Salivary Glandslabial, lingual, buccal, palatine, molar
Parotid Salivary Gland Secretionserous (sometimes mucous in dogs and cats)
Parotid Salivary Tube Structurecompound acinar
Parotid Salivary Gland Key Characteristicspyramidal cells with zymogen granules at apex
Parotid Salivary Gland Associated Cellsmyoepithelial cells at basement membrane
Parotid Salivary Gland Duct Systemintercalated duct (low cuboidal), striated duct (simple columnar - striations form mitochondria), interlobular duct (simple columnar to stratified columnar)


Question Answer
Mandibular Salivary Gland Secretionseromucous (mostlt mucous acini and serous demilunes sometime separate serous units)
Mandibular Salivary Tube Structurecompound tubuloacinar
Mandibular Salivary Gland Key Characteristicsmucous secretory units are filled with mucinogen (precursor to mucous) ; serous demilune at periphery and dischare secretion through intercellular canaliculi


Question Answer
Sublingual Salivary Gland Secretionseromucous
Sublingual Salivary Tube Structuretubuloacinar
Sublingual Salivary Gland Key Characteristics
Sublingual Salivary Gland Species Variationscattle, sheep, pigs - few serous demilune; dogs and cats -clusters of serous acini
Sublingual Salivary Gland Duct Systemmain duct is stratified cuboidal
Sublingual Salivary Gland Duct System Variations in Speciesstriated and intercalated not prominent in dogs and cats; well-developed in horses, ruminants, and pigs


Question Answer
Zygomatic Salivary Gland Gland Secretionmucous with small serous demilun
Zygomatic Salivary Gland Tube Structurelong branched tubuloacinar
Zygomatic Salivary Gland Duct Systemintercalated and striated ducts almost nonexistent
Zygomatic Salivary Gland Species VariationsONLY IN CARNIVORES
Molar Salivary Gland Gland Secretionmucous with small serous demilun
Molar Salivary Gland Tube Structurelong branched tubuloacinar
Molar Salivary Gland Duct Systemintercalated and striated ducts almost nonexistent
Molar Salivary Gland Species VariationsONLY IN CATS

Section 12

General Structure of Tubular Organs
Question Answer
Tunica Mucosaepithelium, lamina propria, lamina muscularis
Tunica SubmucosaCT, glands, submucosal (Meissner's) Plexus
Tunica Muscularissmooth or skeletal muscle and myenteric (Auribach's) Plexus
Tunica Serosa/Adventitiaserosa- myoepithelium, adventitia - CT

Section 13

Question Answer
Esophagus - Tunica Mucosa - Epitheliumstratified squamous
Esophagus - Tunica Mucosa - Epithelium Species Variationsnonkeratinized - dogs; slightly keratinized - pigs and horses; highly keratinized - ruminants
Esophagus - Tunica Mucosa - Lamina Muscularislongitudinal smooth muscle
Esophagus - Tunica Submucosa Gland TypeSeromucous glands
Esophagus - Tunica Submucosa Species Variation of Gland LocationHorses, cats, ruminants - pharyngeoesophageal junction; pigs - cranial half; dogs - entire length
Esophagus - Tunica Muscularis -inner circular, outer longitudinal
Question Answer
Esophagus - Tunica Muscularis Species DifferencesRuminant and dog -entirely striated; horses -cranial 2/3 skeletal muscle; cats - cranial 4/5 skeletal muscle
Esophagus - Tunica Adventitia/Serosa - adventitia in cervical region and serosa in thorax and abdomen

Section 14

Question Answer
Rumen Epitheliumkeratinized stratified squamous
Rumen Mucosacharacterized by small tongue shaped papillae
Rumen Lamina MuscularisABSENT
Rumen Tunica Muscularisinner circular, outer longitudinal
Rumen Tunica Serosacovered by mesothelium and contains varying amounts of fat

Section 15

Question Answer
Reticulum Epitheliumkeratinized stratified squamous
Reticulum Mucosareticular folds (smooth muscle at the upper part of fold) and conical papillae
Reticulum Lamina MuscularisABSENT
Reticulum Tunica Muscularistwo layers PLUS oblique
Reticulum Tunica Serosacovered by mesothelium and contains varying amounts of fat

Section 16

Question Answer
Reticular Groove Characteristicsbordered by two thick folds/lips = labia; smooth muscle layers of labia contract reflexly during sucking bypassing rumen and reticulum

Section 17

Question Answer
Omasum Epitheliumkeratinized stratified squamous
Omasum Mucosaomasal laminae or "leaves" studded with mechanical papillae
Omasum Lamina Muscularison both sides of laminae
Omasum Submucosaextremely thin
Omasum Tunica Muscularisthick inner circular layer continues into laminae and thin outer longitudinal layer

Section 18

Nonglandular Region of Stomach is stratified squamous and may be keratinized
Question Answer
Epithelium of Mucosal Surface and Gastric Pits Glandular Region of Stomachsimple columnar epithelium
Location of the Gastric GlandsLamina Propria
Portions of the Glandular Region of Stomachcardia, fundic, pyloric
Lamina Muscularis of Stomachfibers irregularly interwoven in smooth muscle to help with gland emptying
Tunic Muscularis of Stomachinner oblique, middle circular, outer longitudinal
Tunica Serosaloose CT and numerous adipose cells

Section 19

Question Answer
Cardiac Gland Region Most Developed in What Speciespigs
Cardiac Gland Glandular Structuresimple branched tubular or simple coiled
Cardiac Gland Glandular Secretionmucous
Cardiac Gland Glandular Epithelium Shapecuboidal
Cardiac Glands Empty into relatively shallow pits

Section 20

Question Answer
Fundic Gland Glandular Structurestraight branched tubular glands extend into lamina muscularis and more developed than cardiac glands
Fundic Gland Gland Characteristicshort neck, long body, slightly dilated blind end
Fundic Gland Distinct Cell Typesmucous neck cells, chief cells, parietal cells, endocrine cells
Mucous Neck Cellsneck of gland, mucous cells, flat nucleus at cell base, at junction of pit and gland
Chief/Zymogen Cellsmost numerous, cuboidal or pyramidal cell, round nucleus near base, rER at base, vacuoles of zymogen granules at apex
Function of Chief Cellssecrete pepsinogen that is transformed into pepsin by HCl
Parietal Cellsoccur singly and are larger, round nucleus and glandular appearance because of mitochondria
Function of Parietal Cellssecretes carbonic anhydrase that helps form HCl
Endocrine/Argentaffin Cellswedged between basement membrane and chief cells, stained with silver; secrete directly into capillaries
Function of Endocrine CellsGIT hormones i.e. gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide; regulate smooth muscle

Section 21

Question Answer
Pyloric Gland Glandular Structurebranched coiled tubular and relatively shorter with deeper pits
Pyloric Gland Glandular Secretionmucous
Pyloric Gland Sphincterfrom middle circular layer of tunica muscularis

Section 22

Question Answer
Small Intestine Characteristicsplicae circulares/mucosal folds in the cranial 2/3 with villi and microvilli at surface of mucosa
Small Intestine Epitheliumsimple columnar and goblet cells that decrease at tip of villi
Tunica Mucosa of SIgoblet cells numerous at caudal part of small intestine, in ileum
Tunica Mucosa Cell CharacteristicssER and golgi at apex, rER and ribosomes at base
Tunica Mucosa Function of sER, Golgi, and rER & RibosomessER - triglyceride synthesis, golgi - digestive enzyme secretion, rER & ribosomes - digestive enzyme synthesis
SI Intestinal Glands Name and LocationCrypts of Lieberkuhn in LAMINA PROPRIA
Crypts of Lieberkuhn Gland Stucturesimple branched tubular or simple coiled tubular
Crypts of Lieberkuhn Epithelium and Functionlined by low columnar with villus that multiply and migrate onto villus giving rise to columnar and goblet cells; argentaffin cells
Crypts of Lieberkuhn Species VariationONLY IN RUMINANTS AND HORSES - paneth cells - pyramidal cells produce peptidase and lysozyme = antibacterial
SI Lamina Propriacore of villi, fibrocytes, smooth muscle, plasma cells, mast cells; diffuse lymphatic tissue or nodules that increase in number towards ileum; single lympatic capillary - LACTEAL - in center of cillus and is the origin of the lymph vessels that form a plexus at the base
SI Lamina Muscularislongitudinal smooth muscle extend to tip of villi and responsible for movement of blood and lymph
SI Lamina Muscularis Species Differencesthin and incomplete EXCEPT IN DOGS WHERE IT IS COMPLETE AND THICKER
SI Tunica Submucosa Key CharacteristicsBrunner's glands in duodenum and Peyer's patches in ileum
Brunner's Glands Glandular Structuretubuloalveolar
Brunner's Glands Secretion Variation Based on Speciesdogs and ruminants = mucous, pigs and horses = serous; cats = mixed
Peyer's Patcheslarge aggregated lymphatic nodules in comparison to the solitary nodules throughout the entire SI
SI Tunica Muscularismysenteric plexus between inner and outer muscle layer
SI Tunica Muscularis Thickest in which Specieshorses
SI Outer Layertunica serosa

Section 23

Question Answer
Large Intestine Functionmicrobial action, absorption and secretion of mucous
Large Intestine CharacteristicsNO VILLI, MICROVILLI, longer less-coiled tubular glands, more goblet cells than SI, NO PANETH CELLS, more lymphatic nodules, LONGITUDINAL FOLDS not circular
Large Intestine Gland Structureless coiled simple tubular
Large Intestine Regional Differencescecum has numerous lymphatic nodules, mucosa is thicker than SI due to longer glands, increased number of goblet cells in the rectum
Large Intestine Species Differencespigs and horses have longitudinal layer of tunica muscularis that forms flat muscle bands with elastic fibers called TAENIA