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Question Answer
Demand side managementLowering the demand for energy rather than increasing supply.
Supply side management Satisfies demand by increasing the supply of energy.
Category One Measures towards more sustainable cities already taking place.
Category twoMeasure towards sustainable cities, making slow progress.
Energy Landscapes Things put on landscapes that make energy for us.
Highest Carbon IntensityThe average emission rate of carbon from a given source relative to the intensity of a specific activity,
Transit Oriented DevelopmentThe practice of mixing land uses and increasing the density of urban development near public transit stations.
Sustainability problemsComplex, multi-sectoral. Cut across academic disciplines, harmful, urgent
Vehicle Miles TraveledThe total annual miles of vehicle travel divided by the total population in a state or in an urbanized area.
Critical MassThe minimum size or amount of something required to start or maintain a venture.
Human-Ecological SystemThe combination of human dependance on natural system and the altercations humans make to these cycles.
Bus Rapid Transitusing buses to offer rail like public transit services
Agents of Automobile Depenendenceanti-urban culture, mass production, the rise of fordism consumerism, no residential density
Greenfield Developmenturban growth that happens on previously undeveloped "green land" such as argricultural or forested areas.
Negative Impacts of Automobile DependencyUS transport accounts for 1/3 of total CO2 emissions; dependence on forgein oil, for last 700 months at least 3000 people have died in car accidents, 2 million injuries a year, health
AccessibilityThe measure of ease with which something can be reached in an envionrment
Social Ecological System Consists of a bio-geo-physical unit and its associated social actors and institutions
Adaptive Capacity The ability of a system to adjust to envionmental changes such as climate change
Key Approaches to ResilienceStability, Recovery, Tansformation, Adaptation
StabilityAbility of a system to withstand a disater and its consequences
Recoveryability of a system to bounce back from a change or stressor to return to it's original state
Transformationrenewal, regeneration, and reorganization of a system after stress even
Adaptationcharacteristic that allows a system to better survive and redevelop in it's envionrment under particular stress.
Failsafelow likelihood, high consequence of failure, highly modified infrastructure
Urban FormThe psychial layout and design of a city.
Population DesityThe number of individuals occupying an area in relation to the size of that area
Postindustrial technologya period in the development of an economy or nation in which the relative importance of manufacturing lessens and that of service, information, and research grows.
"Safe to fail"more frequent failure, minimal consequence, flexible
Pedestrian ScaleAn urban development pattern where walking is safe and efficient
CompactnessHigh Denisty development
Environmental TrajectoryIndicated that places experience the worst envionmental conditions when they have recently industrialied and are in the lower middle income stage.
Smart growthLand use pattern characteristics which minimize consumption of urban land and contribute to less energy consumption, pollution and shorter travel times
Saturation Mass TransitWhen over 80% of residents of the built up area of a city live within 600 meters of the rapid transit station.
Environmental Externality Benefits or costs from an investment or activity that are not reflected in the pricing of a product
Public Private Partnership (PPP)When government and a private firm work to construct a needed piece of infrastructure
Megacites10 million people, Economic center of their cities, infrastructure challenegs
Global impacts of cities78% Carbon use, 60% residential water use, 76% wood used for industrial purposes.
Cities and Food ProductionUrban Agriculture produces 15% of the world's food but has the ability to pruduce 25%
Colorado River CompactSigned in 1926 allocating use of different portions of the Colorado River to Wyoming, Colorado, UTah, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, California, and Mexico
Recharge waterThe Flow of water into an aquifer
Reclaimed waterSewage treated to a level of water quality suitable for reuse or recycling
ResilianceThe capasity to absorb change or reorganize and retain essential functions
Carbon FootprintThe amount of green house gases emitted in a given time fram to directly and indirectly support human activities
UrbanizationDescribes the process of more and more people moving from rural to urban areas
Urban ecosystemecological system within a city or urban area
mixed use developmentNot limited to a single use, often combine residential and commercial use in the same building
Hammarby ModelClosed loop system for treating water, waste, and energy
Combined Heat and power plant (CHP)Reuse the waste heat from the electricity production to generate more electricity and useful heat for buildings
Characteristics and principles of sustainable citiesLow ecological impact, cluster housing and densification, green employment, walkable/bikeable, resiliant, placemaking, sustainable development, interconnectivity of enonomic ecological and social dimension
Green networksthe system of interconnected patches and corridors that provide and sustain ecological functions and calues within human dominated landscapes.
Ecosystem servicesthe combined outcomes of an ecosystem that are beneficial to humans and nature, such as the production of kxygen
Ecological resiliencethe measure of an ecosystem's ability to absorb changes and still function in a productive manner
Biodiversitythe veriety of life forms as indicated by the number of species of plants and animals in a particular ecosystem
Food Milesdistance food travel from production to consumer
Food DesertNeighborhoods more than one miles from a grocery store
Food securityAccess and availability of food to an individual to live a healthy lifestyle
Life Cycle Assessmentenvironmental impacts associaed with a particular crop of agriculture
Food accessibility access and availability of food to an individual
local foodfood beng produced and delived to consumer within a geographical areas