Surgery - Factors Affecting Developments

megrusson's version from 2015-06-15 17:49


Question Answer
Why did war help to accelerate training of surgeons?Surgeons were treating wounded soldiers close to the front line, in difficult conditions and dealing with large amounts of injuries. Under pressure, surgeons gained valuable experience and often their improvisations were huge successes.
How did surgeons combat infection in WWI?They found that cutting away infected tissue and soaking the wound with saline (salt) solution would help to deal with infection from deep wounds.
Which type of surgery was first attempted due to the nature of the horrific injuries?Brain surgery
What did Harold Gilles ask for permission to do at the start of WWI?Set up a plastic surgery unit in the British army.
What developments in plastic surgery were occurring before WWI?French and German surgeons were developing skin graft techniques.
What new technique did Gilles invent and how did it work?"Pedicle tubes" - whereby a narrow layer of skin was lifted up from the body and stitched into a tube at one end. The other end was still attached to the body, so blood could circulate and healthy skin could develop. The free end was then attached to the new site.
What are prosthetic limbs?Thousands of men lost limbs in the war, so the development of prosthetic limbs was very important. They were made of light metal alloys and incorporated new mechanisms, but there were long waiting lists and patients needed training for them.
What did increased scientific knowledge, particularly chemistry, help with in surgery?Chemistry played an important part in developing anaesthetics and antiseptics - this allowed more complex operations to take place. It was also important to work out a technique to store blood.
What scientific developments lead Lister's carbolic spray to be introduced?The germ theory, a greater understanding of biology and chemistry and the development of a new science, bacteriology.
When were X-rays discovered and by whom?1895 by Wilhelm Roentgen
What enabled the technology of X-rays to spread quickly?Roentgen did not take out a patent on his discovery, so people were free to copy his ideas.
When did the London Royal Hospital have their first X-ray machine?1896
What did X-rays make possible?Surgeons could extract bullets and shrapnel without having to dig around in a wound, reducing problems of bleeding and infection.
Name some examples of technological developments that impacted surgery.The chloroform inhaler by John Snow to measure dosage / carbolic acid spray / the steam steriliser / the X-ray machine / the hypodermic needle
How were ideas about new developments in surgery spread?Often through medical journals, such as 'the Lancet'.
Would surgeons and scientists ever meet?Often - travelling to visit one another or meeting for conferences was common, and Lister even met Pasteur in 1892 at a conference in Paris.
What are examples of communication being ineffective?Lister also had the idea of hand-washing but knew nothing about Semmelweiss / other surgeons were unwilling to share ideas on plastic surgery with Harold Gilles
What can be said for most individuals in this course?The discoveries individuals made (Simpson, Lister etc) would probably have been discovered by someone else sooner or later, but it was their careful methods and connections that made them successful.