Surgery - Blood Loss

megrusson's version from 2015-06-15 16:15


Question Answer
Why is blood loss a problem in surgery?Bleeding makes it difficult to see what the surgeon is doing, but more importantly if a patient's blood pressure drops affecting the heart, the body cannot function and the patient dies.
When did surgeons first start experimenting with blood transfusions?1600s, using blood from animals (usually sheep) as well as humans.
Why were early blood transfusions banned?In the vast majority of cases the patient died.
What renewed the drive for finding a solution to blood loss?The introduction of anaesthetics and antiseptics, making it possible to perform complex operations.
What was the early way to deal with wounds or amputations?Cautery - placing a hot iron or hot oil on an open wound to seal it.
Why were people searching for a different method to cautery?Cautery was extremely, excruciatingly painful.
Which French surgeon developed metal clips to place on arteries during an operation?Ambroise Paré
What did Paré also invent as an alternative to cautery?Ligatures, which was using silk thread to tie blood vessels after an amputation - but they did not always stop the bleeding if they were not tied properly.
Why were Paré's ideas not initially a success?The germ theory had not yet been developed, so there was no understanding of how dirty hands inside a wound could cause infection and lead to a higher death rate.
What discovery enabled the problem of blood loss to be solved?The discovery of blood groups in 1901 by Karl Landsteiner.
What are the four blood groups?A, B, O and AB
What did Landsteiner show regarding blood groups?Transfusions needed to occur between people with the same blood group, or the patient would die.
Why did blood transfusions not immediately take off after Landsteiner's discovery?A donor needed to present to provide blood whenever it was needed. Clearly, this was not very practical.
What event prompted new research into ways of storing blood for transfusion?WWI, where many soldiers died in the trenches from blood loss even though the wound itself was not fatal.
Which doctor used sodium citrate to stop blood from clotting and when?Richard Lewisohn in 1915
Why was sodium citrate only a temporary, although successful solution?Blood cells would still deteriorate if blood cells were not used soon afterwards, but the discovery still saved the lives of thousands of wounded soldiers.
What did Richard Weil discover?Blood treated with sodium citrate could then be stored in refrigerated conditions to prolong use.
What did Francis Rous & James Turner discover and what did it result in?In 1916 they realised that adding a citrate glucose solution allowed blood to be stored for even longer. As a result, the army could ask for donations of blood from the public when an attack was planned.
When was the first blood depot established?In 1917 for the Battle of Cambrai, using blood group O, which can safely be given to all patients regardless of their blood type.