Surgery - Antiseptics

megrusson's version from 2015-06-13 18:26

Section 1

Question Answer
Why did the new use of anaesthetics create problems?The use of anaesthetics meant that surgeons took longer and began to do more complex operations - but still didn't understand germs.
What were the most common fatal infections after surgery?Gangrene, sepsis
What made operating theatres so unhygienic?Students & assistants would wear normal clothes / Surgeon would wear coat with dried blood and pus on it / Surgeon didn't wash hands properly / Instruments & operating table were dirty
What years are known as the 'Black Period' of surgery and why?1850-1870, because the number of deaths linked to surgery increased during this time.
Who introduced hand-washing?Ignaz Semmelweiss
Where was Semmelweiss training?Vienna General Hospital in Austria
In which year did Semmelweiss make the link between handwashing and hygiene?1846
What did Semmelweiss notice?The death rate among women in childbirth was higher in hospital, in the ward where medical students had just returned from making dissections, than it was in home births.
What did Semmelweiss do that reduced the death rate?Made the students wash their hands in chlorinated solution
Why was Semmelweiss sacked from the hospital?Doctors laughed at his ideas and called him mad. He eventually left Vienna.
Who copied Semmelweiss' ideas in Edinburgh?James Simpson
Who, in the 1840s, was setting high standards of hygiene in hospitals and nursing?Florence Nightingale
What did Nightingale believe in in terms of reasons for disease?The miasma theory, that poisonous vapours caused disease.
How did beliefs of spread of infection backfire when bandaging wounds?The miasma theory belief led to wounds being very tightly bandaged up, which we now know keeps the temperature high and encourages bacterial growth.
Who was appointed Professor of Surgery at Glasgow University?Joseph Lister
Between which years did half of people who had operations die from infection?1861-1865
Which scientist did Lister read about and find interest in the work of?Louis Pasteur and his germ theory
How and when did Lister discover carbolic acid?In 1864, he found that it was used in the sewage works at Carlisle to kill parasites.
What did Lister theorise about carbolic acid?It could be used to kill the microbes causing infection.
In what year did Lister first test his ideas?1865
Who did Lister test his ideas on and was it successful?On an 11-year-old boy with a compound fracture of the leg (where the bone pokes through the skin) - soaking the bandages of the wound in carbolic acid was highly effective, and after six weeks the wound had healed with no infection.
What did Lister announce in 1867 as a result of using carbolic acid to clean wounds, equipment and bandages?That his wards had been free from sepsis for nine months.
Where did Lister become Professor of Surgery in 1877?King's College Hospital, London
What operation did Lister carry out that was widely publicised, causing many to copy his antiseptic methods?An operation on a kneecap
Why was there problems with using silk for stitches?Silk did not absorb carbolic acid and so could not be sterilised, and a thread had to be left dangling from the wound so that the stitches could be pulled out.
What new type of material for stitches did Lister invent?Catgut, which could be sterilised and would dissolve after several days in the body so no thread was left dangling.
What medal is Lister now named after, a testament to his legacy?The Lister Medal, which is the highest honour that can be given to a British surgeon.

Section 2

Question Answer
What did British doctors joke about regarding Lister?"Mr Lister's germs", thinking the belief in microbes to be ludicrous.
Although some accepted the idea of carbolic acid, why did they not practice it?It was too difficult/uncomfortable to put into practice, especially since the acid made the skin on hands cracked and sore.
For what reasons did doctors oppose Lister?Many did not believe in microbes as they could not see them / Carbolic solutions slowed down the operation leading to increased blood loss / Doctors sometimes didn't copy ideas properly, concluding it didn't work / Lister kept changing his methods to improve his work and doctors interpreted this as him being unsure / The equipment was expensive and heavy / Some surgeons got good results without carbolic acid / Nurses resented the extra work
What helped convinced people that Lister was right and microbes did cause disease?Koch's work in 1878, identifying the bacterium that caused blood poisoning.
What did Koch develop in terms of antiseptics?The steam steriliser, which ensured instruments were free from germs.
By which year were most operations carried out in antiseptic conditions?1890
What is the difference between antiseptic and aseptic conditions?Asepsis intends to entirely prevent any microbes being in the operating theatre before surgery, whereas antiseptic conditions prevent microbes getting in the wound.