Surgery - Anaesthetics

megrusson's version from 2015-06-11 13:42


Question Answer
What was the most common type of surgical operation in the 1800s?Amputation
What was 'cutting for the stone'?Removing stones developed in the bladder by hand
What is a tourniquet?Something tied around a part of the body to put pressure on a blood vessel and prevent blood loss
What substances were used as the earliest type of pain relief?Alcohol, opium
What did the lack of anaesthetics mean for surgery?It needed to be carried out as quickly as possible to reduce pain.
In what year was 'laughing gas' discovered?1799
Who was 'laughing gas' discovered by?Humphrey Davy
What is the scientific name for laughing gas?Nitrous oxide
Which US dentist used nitrous oxide when extracting teeth and in what year?Horace Wells in 1844
What was the next, slightly more effective anaesthetic to be discovered?Ether
Who discovered this?William Morton
What were the problems with the use of ether?Made patients vomit / Irritated lungs of patients / Highly flammable / Produced a very deep sleep which could last for days / Had to be carried in very heavy glass bottles
Which young surgeon in Edinburgh vowed to find a better anaesthetic?James Simpson
How did Simpson go about his work?He invited some friends over who all experimented with inhaling vapours from different chemicals.
How did they determine that chloroform was effective?Simpson's wife found the group unconscious after they had inhaled it.
In what year was chloroform both discovered and first tested?1847
What made the use of chloroform more widespread?It's use in the birth of Queen Victoria's eighth child in 1853
What tragically occurred in 1848 which made people more wary of chloroform?The death of Hannah Greener, a 14-year-old girl, by chloroform - she was simply having a toenail removed.
How could chloroform cause death?It affected the heart, and a number of young and physically fit patients died after inhaling it.
Who solved the problem of the chloroform dosage and how?John Snow, who invented the chloroform inhaler that regulated dosage in 1848
For what reasons did people object to chloroform?Religious people felt that pain relief was interfering with God, especially since the Bible stated childbirth was meant to be painful / Anaesthetics were new and not fully understood / Doctors felt it was easier for a patient to die under anaesthetic / At the time death after operations increased following use of anaesthetics
Which (now recreational) drug was found to be effective for pain relief?Cocaine
Why could cocaine not be used as a general anaesthetic?It was highly addictive
What could cocaine be used as instead?A local anaesthetic, to numb a specific part of the body
When was a more effective, non-addictive version of cocaine developed?1905, called novocaine, which could be used as a general anaesthetic.
How did James Simpson make history apart from his discovery?He was the first man to be knighted for services in medicine