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Surg pain

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juniperk's version from 2016-11-20 04:17

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Question Answer
What is Atelectasis?the incomplete expansion or collapse of alveoli with retained mucus, involving a portion of lung and resulting in poor gas exchange.
What happens when patient receives regional anesthesia? remains awake, but loses sensation in a specific area or region of the body. In some instances, reflexes may also be lost.
If a large amount of fresh red drainage appears on a patient’s dressing what should the nurse do? the nurse should not remove the dressing and apply a new one. It is best to reinforce the dressing with additional bandages to reduce the possibility of hemorrhage resulting from dislodging clots that may be forming.
What is Constructive surgery?To restore function in congenital anomalies
What is Reconstructive surgery?To restore function to traumatized or malfunctioning tissue To improve self-concept
What is a Palliative surgery?To relieve or reduce intensity of an illness; is not curative
What is an Ablative surgery?To remove a diseased body part.
What is a Diagnostic surgery?To make or confirm a diagnosis.
When is an urgent surgery done?Usually done within 24–48 hours. must be done within a reasonably short time frame to preserve health, but is not an emergency.
What is postoperative phase and when does it end?beginning with admission to the PACU or other recovery area and ending with complete recovery from surgery and the last follow-up physician visit.
What is the intraoperative phase and when does it end?beginning when the patient is transferred to the OR bed until transfer to the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU).
What is the preoperative phase and when does it end? beginning when the patient and surgeon mutually decide that surgery is necessary and will take place. It ends when the patient is transferred to the operating room (OR) or procedural bed.
What is antibody?immunoglobin produced by the body in response to a specific antigen
What is antigen?foreign material capable of inducing a specific immune response
What is asepsis?absence of disease-producing microorganisms; using methods to prevent infection
What is bundles?evidence-based best practices that have proven positive outcomes when implemented together to prevent infection
What is colonization?presence of an organism residing in an individual’s body but with no clinical signs of infection
What is disinfection?process used to destroy microorganisms; destroys all pathogenic organisms except spores
What is endemicsomething that occurs with predictability in one specific region or population and can appear in a different geographical location
What is endogenous?infection in which the causative organism comes from microbial life harbored within the person
What is exogenous?infection in which the causative organism is acquired from outside the host
What is iatrogenic? infection that occurs as a result of a treatment or diagnostic procedure
What is medical asepsis?practices designed to reduce the number and transfer of pathogens; synonym for clean technique
What is nosocomial?something originating or taking place in the hospital (i.e., infection)
What is vector?nonhuman carriers—such as mosquitoes, ticks, and lice—that transmit organisms from one host to another
What is virulence?ability to produce disease
An infection occurs as a result of a cyclic process, consisting of six components:Infectious agent, Reservoir, Portal of exi,t Means of transmission, Portals of entry, Susceptible host
An infection progresses through the following phases:Incubation period, Prodromal stage, Full stage of illness, Convalescent period
What happens during the incubation period?the organisms are growing and multiplying
What happens during the prodromal stage?the patient often is unaware of being contagious. As a result, the infection spreads.
What happens during the full stage of illness?The presence of specific signs and symptoms indicates the full stage of illness.
What happens during convalescent period?The convalescent period is the recovery period from the infection.
What are cardinal signs of acute infection?redness, heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function, usually appearing at the site of the injury or inflammation.
What happens during the vascular stage of inflammation?small blood vessels constrict in the area followed by vasodilatation of arterioles and venules that supply the area. This increase in blood flow results in redness and heat in the area. Histamine also is released, leading to an increased permeability of vessels, which allows protein-rich fluid to pour into the area. At this point, swelling, pain, and loss of function can occur.
What happens during the cellular stage of inflammation? white blood cells (leukocytes) move quickly into the area. Neutrophils, the primary phagocytes, engulf the organism and consume cell debris and foreign material. Exudate composed of fluid, cells, and inflammatory byproducts is released from the wound. The exudate may be clear (serous), contain red blood cells (sanguinous), or contain pus (purulent). The amount of exudate depends on the size and location of the wound. The damaged cells then are repaired by either regeneration (replacement with identical cells) or the formation of scar tissue
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