Superficial Muscles of the Back

golnazz's version from 2015-08-03 17:20

Superficial (Appendicular) Group


TrapeziusSuperior nuchal line, external occipital protuberance, ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of C7 to T12clavicle, acromion, spine of scapulaassists in rotating the scapula during abduction of humerus above horizontal; upper fibers elevate, middle fibers adduct, and lower fibers depress scapulamotor: accessory nerve (11), proprioception: C3, C4
Latissimus DorsiSpinous processes of T7 to L5 and sacrum, iliac crest, ribs 10 to 12Floor of intertubercular sulcus of humerusExtends, adducts, and medially rotates humerusThoracodorsal nerve (C6 to C8)
Levator ScapulaeTransverse processes of C1-C4/scalpulaUpper portion medial border of scapulaElevates scapulaC3 to C4, Dorsal scapular nerve (C4, C5)
Rhomboid MajorSpinous Process of T2-T5Medial border of scapula between spine & inferior angleRetracts & elevates scapulaeDorsal scapular nerve (C4, C5)
Rhomboid MinorSpinous Processes of C7-T1, Lower ligamentum nuchae of neckMedial scapular border at spine of scapulaRetracts and Elevates ScapulaDorsal scapular nerve (C4, C5)

Intermediate (Respiratory) Group


Serratus Posterior Superiorlower portion of ligamentum nuchae ; spinous processes of C7 to T3 ; supraspinous ligamentsUpper border of ribs 2 to 5Elevates ribs 2 to 5Anterior rami of upper thoracic nerves (T2 to T5)
Serratus Posterior Inferiorspinous processes of T11 to L3 ;supraspinous ligamentsLower border of ribs 9 to 12Depresses ribs 9 to 12 and may prevent lower ribs from being elevated when diaphragm contractsAnterior rami of lower thoracic nerves (T9 to T12)

Spinotransverse Group: Deep & Erector Spinae Group: Deep & Transerversospinales Group: Deep


Splenius capitislower half of ligamentum nuchae ; spinous processes of C7 to T4mastoid process; skull below lateral third of superior nuchal line; occipital boneTogether; Draw head backward, extending neck; individually; Draw and rotate head to one side (turn face to same side)Posterior rami middle cervical nerves
Longissimus capitisTransverse processes of upper 4 to 5 thoracic vertebrae and articular process of lower 3 or 4 cervical vertebraePosterior margin of the mastoid process
Spinalis thoracisSpinous processes of T10 or T11 to L2Spinous processes of T1 to T8
Spinalis cervicisLower part of ligamentum nuchae and spinous process of C7 (sometimes T1 to T2)Spinous process of C2 (axis)
Spinalis capitisUsually blends with semispinalis capitisWith semispinalis capitis
Semispinalis capitisTransverse processes of T1 to T6 or T7 ; Articular processes of C4 to C6Medial are between the superior and inferior nuchal lines of occipital bone

Muscles of Pectoral Region


Pectoralis Majormedial half of clavicle, anterior surface of sternum, 1st 7 costal cartilages, aponeurosis of external obliqueLateral lip of intertubercular sulcus of humerusAdduction, medial rotation and flexion of the humerus at the shoulder jointMedial and lateral pectoral nerves
SubclaviusRib 1 at junction between rib and costal cartilageGroove on inferior surface of middle third claviclePulls clavicle medially to stabilize sternoclavicular joins; depresses tip of shoulderNerve to subclavius
Pectoralis Minoranterior surfaces of the 3rd, 4th, and 5th ribs, deep fascia overlying the related intercostal spacesCoracoid process of scapulaDepresses tip of shoulder; protracts scapulaMedial Pectoral Nerves

Muscles of the Thoracic Wall


External intercostalInferior margin of rib aboveSuperior margin of rib belowMost active during inspiration; supports intercostal space; moves ribs superiorlyIntercostal nerves; T1-T11
Internal intercostalLateral edge of costal groove of rib aboveSuperior margin of rib below deep to the attachment of the related external intercostalMost active during expiration; supports intercostal space; moves ribs inferiorlyIntercostal nerves; T1-T11
Innermost intercostalMedial edge of the costal groove of rib aboveInternal aspect of superior margin of rib belowActs with internal intercostal musclesIntercostal nerves; T1-T11