Summary of National Council on radiation protection measurments

aargueta93's version from 2016-05-06 15:27

Occupational Exposures

Question Answer
annual effective dose limit.05 Sv (50 mSv) (5 rem)
Cumulative annual effective dose limit10 mSv X age (1 Rem X age)
Equivalent dose annual limit for lense of eye?150 mSv (15 rem)
Equivalent dose annual limit for localized areas of the skin, hand, and feet?500 mSv (50 rem)
Students (older than age of 18) annual effective dose limit50 mSv (5 rem)
annual occupational effective dose limit for stochastic effect?50mSv (5rem)
Students (younger than age of 18) annual effective dose limit 1msv (0.1rem)
What dose causes Acute Radiation Syndrome6 Gy (600 rad)
single absorbed dose of 2 Gyradiation induced erythema w/i 24-48 hrs. over the next two week the erythmea will progress and become much greater until it reaches its maximal intensity.
Gonadal dose that can depress the male spern population or cause a genetic mutation0.1 Gy ( 10 rad) ( same dose may delay or suppress menstruation in the female)
2 Gy dose to gonadstemporary sterility in females and females for 12 months, infertility will begin 2 months after initial radiation
5-6 Gy dose to gonadswill cause permanent sterility in the male and in females.

Public Exposures (annual)

Question Answer
Effective dose limit, continous or frequent exposure1 mSv ( 0.1 rem)
Effective dose limit, infrequent exposure5 mSv (0.5 rem)
Equivalent dose limit for lense of the eye15 mSv (1.5 rem)
Equivalent dose limit for areas of the skin, hands, and feet50 mSv ( 5 rem)
Embryo fetus exposre ( monthly)0.5 mSv (0.05 rem)
Embryo fetus totaly equivalent dose limit for gestation5 mSv ( 0.5 rem)
Neglible individual dose0.01 mSv ( 0.001 rem)
What is the LD 50/60 for humans?3-4 Gray (300-400 rad) or 3.5 Gy (350 rad)

Radiation Equivalent Dose and Biologic effects

Question Answer
.25 Sv (25 remblood changes (ex;mesurable heatologic changes, decrease in the number of lymphocytes present in the circulation blood)
1.5 Sv (150 remnausea and diarrhea
2.0 - 6 Sv ( 200-600rem)erythema( diffuse redness over an area of skin after irradiation)
2.5 Sv (250rem)if dose is to gonads temprary sterility
3.0 Sv (300rem)50% chance of desth, lethal dose for 50% of population over 30 days (LD 50/30)
6 Sv (600 rem)Death


Question Answer
Epinephrine(adrenalin)respiratory distress drug is used as a vasoconstrictor & bronchodilator
Dopamineto treat low BP
Benadryluriticaria allergic reaction
Atropineincreased heart rate


Question Answer
lead aporonminmum 0.25 mm Pb ; 0.5 mm Pb perffered
during fluoro or interventional procedured lead apron 0.5 mm Pb
lead gloves0.25 mm Pb
Thyroid shield0.5 mm Pb
eyeglasses0.25 mm Pb
protective drape0.25 mm Pb
Bucky slot cover0.25 mm Pb
lead lined window1.5 mm Pb
overhead plastic barrier0.5 mm Pb 5 ft high( creates a moder appearence for facility and permits a panaramic view, allowing diagnostic image personnel to observe the patient more completely.

WR Radiation Weghing factors which is used to modify absorbed dose amount to account for the damage inflicted by some forms of ionizing radiation

Question Answer
formulaRad X Wr = equivalent dose
x-rays and gamma ray photons, electrons every energy1
neutrons, energy <10kEv5
10 kEv to 100 kEv10
100 kEv to 2 mEv 20
2 mEv to 20 mEv10
20 mEv5
Alpha particles20

Monitoring personal exposure

Question Answer
OSL Optically Stimulated dosimeteryuses aluminum oxide to record dose, radiation absorbed dose causes electrons to be trapped, aluminum oxide layer is stimulated by a laser beam after wear period, electrons release energy as visible light, lihgt is in direct proportion to the amount of radiation received, sensitive to exposure of 1 mrem, relatively unaffected by temperature and humidty, can be worn 3 months at a time and reanalyzed multiple time
Thermoluminescent dosimetery (TLD)uses lithium fluoride crystals instead of filmt to record dose, electrons of crystals are excited by radiation exposure and release this energy on heating, energy released is visible light which is measured by a photomultiplier tube, light is in direct proportion to the amount of radiation received, TLD's are used mainly in ring badges worn by nuclear medicine technolists, sensitive to exposures of 5mrem, relatively unaffected by temperature and humidity, can be worn for longer periods than film badgtes, the TLD's and equipment to read them are expensive
Film Badgesare not often used, consist of plastic case film and filters, film used is similar to dental xray film and measures 10mrem, silm is sensitive to extremes in temperatures and humidity, filters are made of aluminium and copper they measure the intensity and type of radiation striking the film badge, they are usually developed monthly, badge reading of M indicates exposrue below sensitivity level.


Question Answer
What is the limit dose at the table top for fluorscopy?no more than 10 R per minute and 20 rad per minute for high level contro fluorscopy( HLCF)\
leakage radiation may not more than what in the x-ray tube housing unit?100 mR/per hours at a distance of 1 m from the housing
What is the normal adult temperature?98.5
What is the normal BPsystolic= 90-140/ 60-90 diastolic
what is the rate set of oxygen2-4 liters/min


Question Answer
linear nonthreshold effectbasis for all radiation protection standards.
what do H & D Curve graphs demostrate?relation ship between exposure and density on a sheet of film.
what are graphs called that show the relation ship between dose of radiation received andincidence of effectdose response curves
Nonlinear nonthreshold effect dose response curve graphthere is NO safe level of radioation and the response to radiation is NOT directly proporitonal to the dose received.
Non linear threshold dose response curve graphthere IS a safe level of radiation and those effects are NOT directly proportional to the dose received when the safe level is exceeded.
Linear nonthreshold effect dose response curve graphNO safe level of radiation and response to radiation IS directly proportional to the dose received
Linear threshold effect dose response curve graphthere NO a safe level of radiation for certain effects, and those effects are directlyl proportional to the dose received when the safe level is exceeded.


Question Answer
Apneaw/o breathing ( not breathing)
dyspneadifficultly breathing
Tachypnearapid breathing > 20 bpm
Hypoxialow oxygen saturation <90
Cyanotic/Cyanosisblueish coloring in the tissue, more noticeable in the mucous membranes such as eyes, lips, and nail beds.
Epistaxisnose bleed
Vertigodizziness, sensation of the room spinning
Orthopneadifficulty breathing SOB, typically from lying flat recumbent
postural (ortostatic) hypertensiondrop in BP when rising to erect position to quickly ( get light headed)
Transient ischemic attack (TIA)Partial occluded vessel that results in mild or temporary symptoms
shocktriggered by extreme low BP

vocab 2

Question Answer
Deterministic effecteffects of radiation that become more severe at higher levels of exposure once the threshold dose is exceeded.
probabilistic effecteffect of radiation that occur randomly, with the probability of such effects being proportional to the dose received.
Libelwritten information that results in defamation of character or loss of reputation
slanderorally spreading false information that results in defamation of character or loos of reputation
Negligenceunintentional misconduct
respondeat superiorlet the master answer ; legal doctrine stating that an employer is held liable for an employees negligent act
resispa loquitorthe things speaks for itself ; legal doctrine stating that cause of negligence is obvious.
advanced directivepatient provides directive regarding medical care before becoming incapacitated.
durable power of attorneypatient provides for another person to make decisions regarding medical care if the patient is unable to communicate.
Roentgen1 R is equivalent to 2.58 X10^-4 Measure of (+) & (-) particles created when radiation ionizes atoms in the air.Used to measure the output of an xray machine also the amount of radiation that may be expected to strike an object placed near a source of radiation
RAD100 rads is equivalent to 1 Gray or 0.01 rad is equivalent to 1 rad. amount of energy absorbed by the objects. absorption of energy may result in biological damages as the atomic # of object increases so does the absorbed dose.
REM100 rem is equivalent to 1 rem or .0.01 rem is equivalent to 1rem. Unit for equivalent dose used to take into account the different biological effects caused by different types of radiation. WR (radiation weighting factor) is used to modify the absorbed dose amount to account for the grater damage inflicted by some forms of ionizing radiation ( rad X WR= EqD)
CURIE1 C is equivalent to 3.7 X 10^10 becquerel. used to measure the amount of radioactive material the # of atoms decaying per second
Effective dose limitupper boundary dose that can be absorbed either in a single exposure or annually, w/ a negligible risk of somatic or genetic damage.
radiation hormesisa beneficial consequence of radiation for populations continuously exposed to moderately high levels of radiation

walls and barriers

Question Answer
Use factorThe amount of time that x rays are being produced and directed toward a particular wall
Workloadessentially the radiation ouput weighted X the unit that is actually delivering radiation during the week.
Occupancy FactorUsed to modify the shielding requirment for a particular barrier by taking into account the fraction of the workweek during which the space beyond the barrier is occupied (workload X use factor X occupancy factor)
Controlling Factos A region adjacent to a wall of an x-ray room, used only by occupationaly exposed personnel such as tech.
Primary barrierany wall that the useful x-ray can be directed towards; located perpendicaular to primary beam consist of 1/16" Pb and is 7 feet high ( preven direct, or unscattered radiation from reaching personel or members of the general publc
secondary barrierany wall located parallel to the primary beam; consist of 1/32" Pb and extends to the celling ( overlap primary by 1/2") ( protects against leakage and scatter radiation.

Occupancy factor

Question Answer
1receptionist area, waiting rooms, reading rooms
1/2exam rooms
1/5hallways, employee lounges, staff rest rooms
1/8corridor doors

Use factor (U)

Question Answer
1routinely exposed to primary, full use
1/4partial use, not as routinely exposed to primary beam, would include the doors and wall of x-ray room
1/16not routinely exposed

natural sources of radiation 50%

Question Answer

man made radiation 50%

Question Answer
nuclear medicine12%
interventional fluoro7%
conv rad/fluoro5%
consumer products2%

Average entrance skin exposure

Question Answer
AP supine Abdomen 300 mrad
PA upright chest @ 115kVp and grid16 mrad
PA upright ches @ 80kVp no grid8 mrad
AP supine lumbar Spine350 mrad
AP cervical spine80 mrad
PA and lateral knees, with grid20 mrad
AP and lateral forearm with 100 screen speed: 18 mrad

2nd week Seminar fall

Question Answer
What are the two types of ionizing radiation?particulate and electromagnetic
What are the the types of particulate radiation?alpha and beta particles
alpha particles consist of2 protons and 2 neutrons and will decrease the atomic by 2
beta particle consist of1 electron and has a positive charge and will increase the atomic number by 1

shielding at 0.25 mm PB decreases

Question Answer
50 kVp97%
75 kVp66%
100 kVp51%

shielding at 0.50 mm PB

Question Answer
50 kVp99.9%
75 kVp88%
100 kVp75%

Shielding at 1.0 mm PB

Question Answer
50 kVp100%
75 kVp99%
100 kVp94%

Recent badges