uses aluminum oxide to record dose, radiation absorbed dose causes electrons to be trapped, aluminum oxide layer is stimulated by a laser beam after wear period, electrons release energy as visible light, lihgt is in direct proportion to the amount of radiation received, sensitive to exposure of 1 mrem, relatively unaffected by temperature and humidty, can be worn 3 months at a time and reanalyzed multiple time
Thermoluminescent dosimetery (TLD)
uses lithium fluoride crystals instead of filmt to record dose, electrons of crystals are excited by radiation exposure and release this energy on heating, energy released is visible light which is measured by a photomultiplier tube, light is in direct proportion to the amount of radiation received, TLD's are used mainly in ring badges worn by nuclear medicine technolists, sensitive to exposures of 5mrem, relatively unaffected by temperature and humidity, can be worn for longer periods than film badgtes, the TLD's and equipment to read them are expensive
are not often used, consist of plastic case film and filters, film used is similar to dental xray film and measures 10mrem, silm is sensitive to extremes in temperatures and humidity, filters are made of aluminium and copper they measure the intensity and type of radiation striking the film badge, they are usually developed monthly, badge reading of M indicates exposrue below sensitivity level.
effects of radiation that become more severe at higher levels of exposure once the threshold dose is exceeded.
effect of radiation that occur randomly, with the probability of such effects being proportional to the dose received.
written information that results in defamation of character or loss of reputation
orally spreading false information that results in defamation of character or loos of reputation
let the master answer ; legal doctrine stating that an employer is held liable for an employees negligent act
the things speaks for itself ; legal doctrine stating that cause of negligence is obvious.
patient provides directive regarding medical care before becoming incapacitated.
durable power of attorney
patient provides for another person to make decisions regarding medical care if the patient is unable to communicate.
1 R is equivalent to 2.58 X10^-4 Measure of (+) & (-) particles created when radiation ionizes atoms in the air.Used to measure the output of an xray machine also the amount of radiation that may be expected to strike an object placed near a source of radiation
100 rads is equivalent to 1 Gray or 0.01 rad is equivalent to 1 rad. amount of energy absorbed by the objects. absorption of energy may result in biological damages as the atomic # of object increases so does the absorbed dose.
100 rem is equivalent to 1 rem or .0.01 rem is equivalent to 1rem. Unit for equivalent dose used to take into account the different biological effects caused by different types of radiation. WR (radiation weighting factor) is used to modify the absorbed dose amount to account for the grater damage inflicted by some forms of ionizing radiation ( rad X WR= EqD)
1 C is equivalent to 3.7 X 10^10 becquerel. used to measure the amount of radioactive material the # of atoms decaying per second
Effective dose limit
upper boundary dose that can be absorbed either in a single exposure or annually, w/ a negligible risk of somatic or genetic damage.
a beneficial consequence of radiation for populations continuously exposed to moderately high levels of radiation
The amount of time that x rays are being produced and directed toward a particular wall
essentially the radiation ouput weighted X the unit that is actually delivering radiation during the week.
Used to modify the shielding requirment for a particular barrier by taking into account the fraction of the workweek during which the space beyond the barrier is occupied (workload X use factor X occupancy factor)
A region adjacent to a wall of an x-ray room, used only by occupationaly exposed personnel such as tech.
any wall that the useful x-ray can be directed towards; located perpendicaular to primary beam consist of 1/16" Pb and is 7 feet high ( preven direct, or unscattered radiation from reaching personel or members of the general publc
any wall located parallel to the primary beam; consist of 1/32" Pb and extends to the celling ( overlap primary by 1/2") ( protects against leakage and scatter radiation.